In the courtroom, critical and life-changing decisions are made based on quantitative forensic science data. There is often a range in which a measured value is expected to fall and, in this, an inherent uncertainty associated with such measurement. Uncertainty in this context is not error. In fact, estimations of uncertainty can add to the utility and reliability of quantitative results, be it the length of a firearm barrel, the weight of a drug sample, or the concentration of ethanol in blood. Measurement Uncertainty in Forensic Science: A Practical Guide describes and defines the concepts related to such uncertainty in the forensic context. The book provides the necessary conceptual background and framework—a baseline—for developing and deploying reasonable and defensible uncertainty estimations across forensic disciplines. Information is presented conceptually, using easily understood examples, to provide a readable, handy reference for scientists in the laboratory, as well as investigators and legal professionals who require a basic understanding of the science underpinning measurement results.
While one would hope that forensic scientists, investigators, and experts are intrinsically ethical by nature, the reality is that these individuals have morality as varied as the general population. These professionals confront ethical dilemmas every day, some with clear-cut protocols and others that frequently have no definitive answers. Since the publication of the first edition of Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, the field of forensic science has continued to see its share of controversy. This runs the gamut of news stories from investigators, lab personnel, or even lab directors falsifying results, committing perjury, admitting to fraud, to overturned convictions, questions about bias, ethics, and what constitutes an "expert" on the witness stand. This fully updated edition tackles all these issues—including some specific instances and cases of unethical behavior—and addresses such salient issues as accreditation requirements, standardization of ethical codes, examiner certification, and standards for education and training. The new edition provides: A new chapter on the "Ferguson Effect" faced by the criminal justice system The context of forensic science ethics in relation to general scientific ethics, measurement uncertainty, and ethics in criminal justice Ethical conundrums and real-world examples that forensic scientists confront every day The ethics and conduct codes of 20 different forensic and scientific professional organizations An outline of the National Academies of Science (NAS) recommendations and progress made on ethics in forensic science since the release of the NAS report Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, Second Edition explores the range of ethical issues facing those who work in the forensic sciences—highlights the complicated nature of ethics and decision-making at the crime scene, in the lab, and in the courts. The book serves both as an essential resource for laboratories to train their employees and as an invaluable textbook for the growing number of courses on ethics in criminal justice and forensic science curricula. Accompanying PowerPoint® slides and an Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank are available to professors upon qualifying course adoption.
Forensic metrology is the application of scientific measurement to the investigation and prosecution of crime. Forensic measurements are relied upon to determine breath and blood alcohol and drug concentrations, weigh seized drugs, perform accident reconstruction, and for many other applications. Forensic metrology provides a basic framework for th
The two-volume World of Forensic Science is a convenient, comprehensive guide to the scientific processes and the legal, social and ethical issues involved in the forensic sciences. Approximately 600 entries cover the individuals, techniques and principles of biology, chemistry, law, medicine, physics, computer science, geology and psychology involved in the multidisciplinary approach of examining crime scenes and evidence to be used in legal proceedings. Topics range from types of evidence (fingerprints, hair, weapons) to specific techniques and methods of analysis (ballistics, DNA identification), organizations (Federal Crime Lab), individuals (Alphonse Bertillon) and famous trials (O.J. Simpson case).
We live in an increasingly complex society in which we are constantly overwhelmed by numbers and units. However, units and measurements are not meant to confuse people but to help them. They were developed and designed to allow for effective communication on commercial and technical levels. Simply put, they are the structure behind all technical accomplishments.The purpose of this text is to introduce the reader to these elements of Uncertainty Analysis so that they can be applied to forensics. This challenging book covers the fundamentals of Uncertainty Analysis-a tool used by engineers and scientists throughout the world to estimate uncertainty. This instructive book has been geared solely towards the many legal professionals and forensic engineers who are unaware of Uncertainty Analysis for Forensic Science and its potential applications in the courtroom. Covering a wide range of topics that range from probability and statistical variables, mathematical relationships and equations, to sensitivity and design of experiments, this text has everything you could possibly want. If you are looking for a detailed work on this particular subject matter that will give you the facts and knowledge you need, then you are in for a very pleasant surprise. Uncertainty Analysis for Forensic Science serves to enlighten, inform and familiarize one with these particular ideas by applying scientific and medical knowledge to legal matters. But don't just take our word for it. Find out for yourself!
The fifth edition of the best-selling Principles in Forensic Toxicology continues in the tradition of excellence in academic publishing. With over 10 years of classroom-tested and continually updated content, the new edition contains significant updates and 7 new chapters on new topics including drug-facilitated crimes, derivatization, quantitation, measurement uncertainty/traceability, statistics, oral fluid testing, and drugs in embalmed specimens. Part One covers the major sub-disciplines of forensic toxicology in addition to pharmacological concepts. Part Two addresses specimen preparation, laboratory testing and instrumental analysis, while Part Three discusses common analytes including cocaine, opioids, alcohol, and marijuana. Adopted for courses in many of the top universities for forensic science and used by respected medical examiner's offices and crime laboratories worldwide, Principles of Forensic Toxicology prepares the next generation of forensic toxicologists and continues to be an important reference in professional practice.
The second in a three-volume series, this popular and widely circulated professional handbook describes the theories and practices of today's criminalistics, and covers a wide range of subject areas relevant to the services rendered by crime laboratories and related facilities. Presents authoritative reviews from recognized forensic criminologists and forensic scientists well-versed in their chosen areas of expertise. Considers a specific examination technique for a wide-range of evidence prevalent in the modern crime laboratory, e.g., DNA, hair, paint, soil, glass, petroleum products, explosives, alcohol in blood and breath, and questioned documents. Describes the theory, operation, and forensic utilization of such modern analytical instruments as mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and the visible microspectrophotometer. Emphasizes the symbiotic relationship between forensic science and criminal law as it examines the role and conduct of the expert witness, rules of evidence, and the legal requirements governing the admissibility of scientifically evaluated evidence.For professionals in forensic science and criminology.
Forensic Anthropology serves as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching forensic anthropology, as well as an excellent reference for forensic anthropologist libraries or for use in casework. Covers taphonomy, recovery and analysis, identification, statistical interpretation, and professional issues. Edited by a world-renowned leading forensic expert, the Advanced Forensic Science Series grew out of the recommendations from the 2009 NAS Report, Strengthening Forensic Science: A Path Forward, and is a long overdue solution for the forensic science community. Provides the basic principles of forensic science and an overview of forensic anthropology Contains sections on taphonomy, recovery, analysis, pathology, and identification Covers statistical interpretation of evidence using the classical-frequentist approach and Bayesian analysis, measurement uncertainty, and standard methods Includes a section on professional issues, such as: from crime scene to court, expert witness testimony, and health and safety Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions, and additional reading suggestions
Since the 1960s, testimony by representatives of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in thousands of criminal cases has relied on evidence from Compositional Analysis of Bullet Lead (CABL), a forensic technique that compares the elemental composition of bullets found at a crime scene to the elemental composition of bullets found in a suspect's possession. Different from ballistics techniques that compare striations on the barrel of a gun to those on a recovered bullet, CABL is used when no gun is recovered or when bullets are too small or mangled to observe striations. Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence assesses the scientific validity of CABL, finding that the FBI should use a different statistical analysis for the technique and that, given variations in bullet manufacturing processes, expert witnesses should make clear the very limited conclusions that CABL results can support. The report also recommends that the FBI take additional measures to ensure the validity of CABL results, which include improving documentation, publishing details, and improving on training and oversight.
Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the International Conference on Computers and Information Processing Technologies (ICCIPT 2014), April 23-24, 2014, Shanghai, China. The 223 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Advanced Computing Technology and Mathematical Modeling, Chapter 2: Detection and Optimization Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Systems, Chapter 3: Communications and Network, Chapter 4: Software Engineering, Chapter 5: Database Systems and Data Security, Chapter 6: Computer Vision and Image Processing, Chapter 7: Signal and Media Information Processing, Chapter 8: Modern Electronics, Photonics Science and Engineering, Chapter 9: Controller and Sensor Technology, Chapter 10: Mechanical Design and Engineering, Chapter 11: E-Commerce, E-Government, IOT and Management
Statistics in Practice A new series of practical books outlining the use of statistical techniques in a wide range of application areas: Human and Biological Sciences Earth and Environmental Sciences Industry, Commerce and Finance The use of statistical and probabilistic methods and models in forensic science is of increasing importance, as demonstrated by the widespread public interest in DNA profiling evidence. However, such methods and models are appropriate to a range of other situations also of relevance to forensic scientists. Assuming only a modest mathematical background, the book uses data-based examples from a forensic science background to illustrate, with careful presentation and explanation, the relevant statistical concepts and methods. Topics covered include: Transfer evidence. The likelihood ratio approach for evaluating evidence under conflicting hypotheses produced by the prosecution and the defence. The interpretation of quantitative results—the prosecutor’s and the defender’s fallacies. The examination of DNA profiling, blood groups, glass fragments, etc. The clarity of exposition makes this book ideal for all forensic scientists, lawyers and other professionals in related fields interested in the quantitative assessment and evaluation of evidence.
This text is an accessible, student-friendly introduction to the wide range of mathematical and statistical tools needed by the forensic scientist in the analysis, interpretation and presentation of experimental measurements. From a basis of high school mathematics, the book develops essential quantitative analysis techniques within the context of a broad range of forensic applications. This clearly structured text focuses on developing core mathematical skills together with an understanding of the calculations associated with the analysis of experimental work, including an emphasis on the use of graphs and the evaluation of uncertainties. Through a broad study of probability and statistics, the reader is led ultimately to the use of Bayesian approaches to the evaluation of evidence within the court. In every section, forensic applications such as ballistics trajectories, post-mortem cooling, aspects of forensic pharmacokinetics, the matching of glass evidence, the formation of bloodstains and the interpretation of DNA profiles are discussed and examples of calculations are worked through. In every chapter there are numerous self-assessment problems to aid student learning. Its broad scope and forensically focused coverage make this book an essential text for students embarking on any degree course in forensic science or forensic analysis, as well as an invaluable reference for post-graduate students and forensic professionals. Key features: Offers a unique mix of mathematics and statistics topics, specifically tailored to a forensic science undergraduate degree. All topics illustrated with examples from the forensic science discipline. Written in an accessible, student-friendly way to engage interest and enhance learning and confidence. Assumes only a basic high-school level prior mathematical knowledge.