This volume offers a comprehensive account of the cultural history of Greenland's Cape Farewell region in the 19th century. The dominating factor was the immigration of people to the area from southeast Greenland. There are no written sources originating from these immigrants, as they could neither read nor write, so the descriptions presented are primarily based on material from the Danish colonial authorities and the German Moravian mission. Although one-sided and reflecting a European view and conception of the world, the sources contain valuable information which, when pieced together, give a clear picture of immigration to the Cape Farewell area at the time, and of the society which arose in the wake of this immigration, not least of the impending struggle for the souls of the unbaptized East Greenlanders and also for their contribution to colonial trade in the 19th century. The volume includes accounts of the immigrants themselves which have been passed down from generation to ge
In 2005 the Danish government obliged the wish of the Greenlandic Home Rule to commission a historical report on the circumstances surrounding the changed status of Greenland within the realm following the modification of the Constitution in 1953. This report is here presented by leading specialists in the field who provide the most comprehensive account to date of Greenland's colonial status in the years 1945-54. With the Constitution of 1953, the colonial status of Greenland came to an end and the country was made an integral part of Denmark, and Greenlanders were now granted equal rights as citizens within the Danish realm. In 1954 this new arrangement was supported by an overwhelming majority in the UN General Assembly. The decision to change Greenland's status was conditioned both by internal and external circumstances. In the UN context, Danes increasingly felt the strain of being a colonial power, and they also feared the possibility of future UN interference in Greenlandic affairs. The chapters in this volume are significant contributions to the ongoing debates concerning important political developments in Danish-Greenlandic relations in the post-war period. Together they constitute the definitive attempt to untangle and delineate the many circumstances impinging on the phasing out of Greedlands colonial status.
The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, the type locality of agpaitic nepheline syenites and of thirty minerals, among which arfvedsonite, eudialyte and sodalite, has been studied since 1806. The paper reviews the outcome of 200 years of geological investigations and presents an overview and a synthesis of the petrology of the complex. According to one model for the evolution of the complex, the nepheline syenites formed by consolidation of one magma batch in a closed system. The lujavrites were formed from the residual melts left after the formation of the roof series and the floor series and were sandwiched between these. A second model implies that the kakortokites and lujavrites formed from one or more separate magma pulses which intruded the already consolidated roof series rocks. This model is supported by new information on contact relations and especially on the petrology and geochemistry of a marginal pegmatitic fades that forms a rim around the kakortokite-lower aegirine lujavrite part of the complex. It consists of a massive-textured matrix intersected by pegmatites. The matrix was the first rock to form in the lowermost exposed part of the complex and gives information about the composition of the initial magma of the kakortokite-lujavrite sequence. It is concluded that the agpaitic rocks of the complex were formed from at least two successive magma injections, which formed respectively the roof series and the kakortokite-lujavrite sequence.
Encyclopedia of the World’s Biomes is a unique, five volume reference that provides a global synthesis of biomes, including the latest science. All of the book's chapters follow a common thematic order that spans biodiversity importance, principal anthropogenic stressors and trends, changing climatic conditions, and conservation strategies for maintaining biomes in an increasingly human-dominated world. This work is a one-stop shop that gives users access to up-to-date, informative articles that go deeper in content than any currently available publication. Offers students and researchers a one-stop shop for information currently only available in scattered or non-technical sources Authored and edited by top scientists in the field Concisely written to guide the reader though the topic Includes meaningful illustrations and suggests further reading for those needing more specific information
Making the Arctic City explores the unwritten history of city-building in the Arctic over the last 100 years. Spanning northern regions of North America, through Greenland, Svalbard to Russia, this is the first book to provide a truly circumpolar account of historical and contemporary architecture and urbanism in the Arctic – and it shows how the Arctic city offers valuable lessons for the post-colonial study of architectural and urban planning history elsewhere. Examining architects' and planners' designs for Arctic urban futures, it considers the impact of 20th-century models of urban design and planning in Arctic cities, and reveals how contemporary architectural approaches continue to this day to essentialize 'extreme' climate conditions and disregard the agency of Arctic city-dwellers – a critical perspective that is vital to the formulation of future design and planning practices in the region.
This book describes life in a small hunting community in Northwest Greenland. It is based on fieldwork carried out by the author from 1966 to 1968 and documents in detail the traditional material culture, ways of hunting and fishing, daily life, and festive occasions of an Inuit society not yet influenced by European culture. The historical background of the settlement from the establishment in 1923 is outlined. Daily life in the settlement itself and out on the hunting grounds is followed through a whole year and all processes are documented in the many original photographs. The book demonstrates a surprising stability in the life of the hunting families, not due to conservatism but because experience has shown them that this way of living is the most suited to the given conditions. At the time of the field study, new tools and a number of other items had been introduced. In a large number of cases, they are used in conjunction with more traditional tools.
Ninety years ago, Knud Rasmussen’s popular account of his scientific expeditions through Greenland and North America introduced readers to the culture and history of arctic Natives. In the intervening century, a robust field of ethnographic research has grown around the Inuit and Yupiit of North America—but, until now, English-language readers have had little access to the broad corpus of work on Greenlandic natives. Worldviews of the Greenlanders draws upon extensive Danish and Greenlandic research on Inuit arctic peoples—as well as Birgitte Sonne’s own decades of scholarship and fieldwork—to present in rich detail the key symbols and traditional beliefs of Greenlandic Natives, as well as the changes brought about by contact with colonial traders and Christian missionaries. It includes critical updates to our knowledge of the Greenlanders’ pre-colonial world and their ideas on space, time, and other worldly beings. This expansive work will be a touchstone of Arctic Native studies for academics who wish to expand their knowledge past the boundaries of North America.