Philosophy

New Essays on Thomas Reid

Author: Patrick Rysiew

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 252

View: 217

Thomas Reid (1710-96) was a contemporary of both David Hume and Immanuel Kant, and a central figure in the Scottish School of Common Sense. Until recently, his work has been largely neglected, and often misunderstood. Like Kant, Reid cited Hume’s Treatise as the main spur to his own philosophical work. In Reid’s case, this led him to challenge ‘the theory of ideas’, which he saw as the cornerstone of Hume’s (and many other philosophers’) theories. For those familiar with Reid’s work, it is clear that its significance extends well beyond his challenging the theory of ideas. The variety of topics which this book covers attests to the richness and variety of Reid’s philosophical contributions, and the persisting relevance of his work to contemporary philosophical debates. The work included in this book, by leading figures in Reid scholarship, deals with aspects of Reid’s views on topics ranging from perception, to epistemology, to ethics and meta-ethics, through to language, mind, and metaphysics. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
Philosophy

New Essays on Thomas Reid

Author: Patrick Rysiew

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 252

View: 685

Thomas Reid (1710-96) was a contemporary of both David Hume and Immanuel Kant, and a central figure in the Scottish School of Common Sense. Until recently, his work has been largely neglected, and often misunderstood. Like Kant, Reid cited Hume’s Treatise as the main spur to his own philosophical work. In Reid’s case, this led him to challenge ‘the theory of ideas’, which he saw as the cornerstone of Hume’s (and many other philosophers’) theories. For those familiar with Reid’s work, it is clear that its significance extends well beyond his challenging the theory of ideas. The variety of topics which this book covers attests to the richness and variety of Reid’s philosophical contributions, and the persisting relevance of his work to contemporary philosophical debates. The work included in this book, by leading figures in Reid scholarship, deals with aspects of Reid’s views on topics ranging from perception, to epistemology, to ethics and meta-ethics, through to language, mind, and metaphysics. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
Philosophy

The Philosophy of Thomas Reid

Author: John Haldane

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 222

View: 891

Thomas Reid was one of the greatest philosophers of the eighteenth century and a contemporary of Kant's. This volume is part of a new wave of international interest in Reid from a new generation of scholars. The volume opens with an introduction to Reid's life and work, including biographical material previously little known. A classic essay by Reid himself - 'Of Power' - is then reproduced, in which he sets out his distinctive account of causality and agency. This is followed by ten original essays exploring different aspects of Reid's philosophy, as well as his relation to other thinkers, such as Kant, Priestley, and Moore.
Philosophy

Thomas Reid

Author: Giovanni B. Grandi

Publisher: Andrews UK Limited

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 383

View: 398

Thomas Reid (1710-1796) is the foremost exponent of the Scottish 'common sense' school of philosophy. Educated at Marischal College in Aberdeen, Reid subsequently taught at King's College, and was a founder of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society. His Inquiry Into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense was published in 1764, the same year he succeeded Adam Smith as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. He resigned from active teaching duties in 1785 to devote himself to writing, and published two more books - Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785) and Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788). Within a short time of publication, Reid's works were translated into French and German, and greatly influenced debates in philosophy and psychology in Europe. His influence in the emerging colleges and universities of post-revolutionary America was even greater. Reid was widely regarded as David Hume's most sophisticated contemporary critic. His critique of the 'theory of ideas' that lay behind both Hume's scepticism and Berkeley's immaterialism, his critique of Locke's theory of personal identity, and his defence of 'moral liberty' against determinism are all of enduring interest and significance. The aim of this comprehensive selection of his writings is to make the key elements of Reid's philosophical work available to a new generation of readers. Two other philosophers of the 'common sense' school are featured in the Library of Scottish Philosophy - James Beattie and Dugald Stewart.
Philosophy

Thomas Reid's Inquiry and Essays

Author: Thomas Reid

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 368

View: 886

Reid's previously published writings are substantial, both in quantity and quality. This edition attempts to make these writings more readily available in a single volume. Based upon Hamilton's definitive two volume 6th edition, this edition is suitable for both students and scholars. Beanblossom and Lehrer have included a wide range of topics addressed by Reid. These topics include Reid's views on the role of common sense, scepticism, the theory of ideas, perception, memory and identity, as well as his views on moral liberty, duties, and principles. Historical as well as topical considerations guided the selection process. Thus, Reid's responses to Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume are included. Through the resulting selections Reid's influence and impact upon subsequent philosophers is manifested.

Essays on the Active Powers of Man; by Thomas Reid, ...

Author: Thomas Reid

Publisher: Theclassics.Us

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 138

View: 761

This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1788 edition. Excerpt: ... CHAP. II. Instinct. H E mechanical principles of action may, I think, be re- duced to two species, instincts and habits. By instinct, I mean a natural blind impulse to certain actions, without having any end in view, without deliberation, and very often without any conception of what we do. Thus a man breathes while he is alive, by the alternate contraction and relaxation of certain muscles, by which the chest, and of consequence the lungs, are contracted and dilated. There is no reason to think, that an infant new-born, knows* that breathing is necessary to life in its new state, that he knowi how it must be performed, or even that he has any thought or conception of that operation; yet he breathes as soon as he i& born with perfect regularity, as if he had been taught, and got the habit by long practice. By the same kind of principle, a new-born child, when its stomach is emptied, and nature has brought milk into the mother's breast, sucks and swallows its food as perfectly as if it. knew the principles of that operation, and had got the habit of working according to them Sucking and swallowing are very complex operations. Anatomists describe about thirty pairs of muscles that must be em"ployed in every draught. Of those muscles, every one must be served by its proper nerve, and can make no exertion but by some influence communicated by the nerve. The exertion of all those muscles and nerves is not simultaneous. They must succeed Chap. 11. Chap. H. succeed each other in a certain order, and their order is no less necessary than the exertion itself. This regular train of operations is carried on according to the nicest rules of art, by the infant, who has neither art, nor science, nor experience, nor habit. That the infant feels the...
Literary Criticism

The Testimony of Sense

Author: Tim Milnes

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN:

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 288

View: 412

The Testimony of Sense attempts to answer a neglected but important question: what became of epistemology in the late eighteenth century, in the period between Hume's scepticism and Romantic idealism? It finds that two factors in particular reshaped the nature of 'empiricism': the socialisation of experience by Scottish Enlightenment thinkers and the impact upon philosophical discourse of the belletrism of periodical culture. The book aims to correct the still widely-held assumption that Hume effectively silenced epistemological inquiry in Britain for over half a century. Instead, it argues that Hume encouraged the abandonment of subject-centred reason in favour of models of rationality based upon the performance of trusting actions within society. Of particular interest here is the way in which, after Hume, fundamental ideas like the self, truth, and meaning are conceived less in terms of introspection, correspondence, and reference, and more in terms of community, coherence, and communication. By tracing the idea of intersubjectivity through the issues of trust, testimony, virtue and language, the study offers new perspectives on the relationships between philosophy and literature, empiricism and transcendentalism, and Enlightenment and Romanticism. As philosophy grew more conversational, the familiar essay became a powerful metaphor for new forms of communication. The book explores what is epistemologically at stake in the familiar essay genre as it develops through the writings of Joseph Addison, David Hume, Samuel Johnson, Charles Lamb, and William Hazlitt. It also offers readings of philosophical texts, such as Hume's Treatise, Thomas Reid's Inquiry, and Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, as literary performances.
Literary Collections

Thomas Reid

Author: Derek R. Brookes

Publisher: Penn State University Press

ISBN:

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 340

View: 711

A critical edition of one of Scottish Enlightenment philosopher Thomas Reid's most important works.Thomas Reid (1710-96) is increasingly being seen as a central figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. His Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense has long been recognized as a classic philosophical text. Since its first publication in 1764, no fewer than forty editions have been published. The proliferation of secondary literature further indicates that Reid's work is flourishing as never before, yet there exist thousands of unpublished manuscript pages in Reid's hand, many of which relate directly to the composition of the Inquiry. Furthermore, no account has been taken of the successive alterations made to the four editions published in Reid's lifetime. This new edition, edited by Derek Brookes, aims to present a complete, critically edited text of the Inquiry, accompanied by a judicious selection of manuscript evidence relating to its composition.The volume contains a preface by Brookes followed by an introduction giving the central argument of the Inquiry by means of a historical and philosophical account of its formation. The critical text is based on the fourth lifetime edition (1785), while the textual notes include bibliographical details and allusions, translations, references to secondary literature, and selected passages from Reid's manuscript.
Philosophy

An Inquiry Into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense

Author: Thomas Reid

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 345

View: 813

Thomas Reid (1710-96) is increasingly being seen as a central figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. His Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense has long been recognized as a classic philosophical text. Since its first publication in 1764, no fewer than forty editions have been published. The proliferation of secondary literature further indicates that Reid's work is flourishing as never before, yet there exist thousands of unpublished manuscript pages in Reid's hand, many of which relate directly to the composition of the Inquiry. Furthermore, no account has been taken of the successive alterations made to the four editions published in Reid's lifetime. This new edition, edited by Derek Brookes, aims to present a complete, critically edited text of the Inquiry, accompanied by a judicious selection of manuscript evidence relating to its composition.The volume contains a preface by Brookes followed by an introduction giving the central argument of the Inquiry by means of a historical and philosophical account of its formation. The critical text is based on the fourth lifetime edition (1785), while the textual notes include bibliographical details and allusions, translations, references to secondary literature, and selected passages from Reid's manuscript.
Philosophy

Thomas Reid - Essays on the Active Powers of Man

Author: Thomas Reid

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 416

View: 313

The Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788) was Thomas Reid's last major work. It was conceived as part of one large work, intended as a final synoptic statement of his philosophy. The first and larger part was published three years earlier as Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (edited as vol. 3 of the Edinburgh Edition of Thomas Reid). These two works are united by Reid's basic philosophy of common sense, which sets out native principles by which the mind operates in both its intellectual and active aspects. The Active Powers shows how these principles are involved in volition, action, and the ability to judge morally. Reid gives an original twist to a libertarian and realist tradition that was prominently represented in eighteenth-century British thought by such thinkers as Samuel Clarke and Richard Price.
Philosophy

The Philosophy of Thomas Reid

Author: M.T. Dalgarno

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 492

View: 535

Note on references to the works of Thomas Reid 5 SECTION 1 - Perception Yves Michaud (University of Paris, France) 9 'Reid's Attack on the Theory of Ideas' William P. Alston (Syracuse University, U. S. A. ) 35 'Reid on Perception and Conception' Vere Chappell (University of Massachusetts, U. S. A. ) 49 'The Theory of Sensations' Norton Nelkin (University of New Orleans, U. S. A. ) 65 'Reid's View of Sensations Vindicated' A. E. Pitson (University of Stirling, Scotland) 79 'Sensation, Perception and Reid's Realism' Aaron Ben-Zeev (University of Haifa, Israel) 91 'Reid's Opposition to the Theory of Ideas' Michel Malherbe (University of Nantes, France) 103 'Thomas Reid on the Five Senses' SECTION 2 - Knowledge and COlIIOOn Sense Keith Lehrer (University of Arizona, U. S. A. ) 121 'Reid on Evidence and Conception' Dennis Charles Holt (Southeast Missouri State 145 University, U. S. A. ) 'The Defence of Common Sense in Reid and Moore' T. J. Sutton (University of Oxford, England) 159 'The Scottish Kant?' Daniel Schulthess (university of Berne, Switzerland) 193 'Did Reid Hold Coherentist Views?' VI Claudine Engel-Tiercelin (University of Rouen, France) 205 'Reid and Peirce on Belief' C. A. J. Coady (University of Melbourne, Australia) 225 'Reid on Testimony' SECTION 3 - Mind and Action James Somerville (University of Hull, England) 249 'Making out the Signatures: Reid's Account of the Knowledge of Other Minds' R. F.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Linguistic Content

Author: Margaret Cameron

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN:

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 280

View: 221

This volume explores the rich history of philosophy of language in the Western tradition, from Plato and Aristotle to the twentieth century. A team of leading experts focus in particular on key metaphysical debates about linguistic content, including questions of ontological status and metaphysical grounding.
Philosophy

Thomas Reid on Mind, Knowledge, and Value

Author: Rebecca Copenhaver

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 766

This volume offers a fresh view of the work of Thomas Reid, a leading figure in the history of eighteenth-century philosophy. A team of leading experts in the field explore the significance of Reid's thought in his time and ours, focusing in particular on three broad themes: mind, knowledge, and value. Together, they argue that Reid's philosophy is about developing agents in a rich world of objects and values, agents with intellectual and active powers whose regularity is productive. Though such agents are equipped at first with rudimentary abilities, those abilities are responsive. Our powers consist in a fundamental and on-going engagement with the world, a world that calls on us to be flexible, sensitive, astute, and ultimately, practical. Thomas Reid on Mind, Knowledge, and Value represents both the vitality of Reid's work, and the ways in which current philosophers are engaging with his ideas.
Philosophy

Thomas Reid's Theory of Perception

Author: Ryan Nichols

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 301

View: 492

The thesis that the mind cannot directly apprehend features of the physical world - what Reid calls the Way of Ideas - is a staple of Early Modern philosophical tradition. This commitment to the direct awareness of, and only of, mental representations unifies the otherwise divergent philosophical systems of Rationalists and Empiricists. Thomas Reid battles against this thesis on many fronts, in particular over the nature of perception.Ryan Nichols lays the groundwork for Reid's theory of perception by developing Reid's unheralded argument against a representational theory of thought, which Nichols applies to his discussion of the intentionality of perceptual states and Reid's appeal to 'signs'. Reid's efforts to preserve common sense epistemic commitments also lead him to adopt unique theories about our concepts of primary and secondary qualities, and about original and acquired perceptions. About the latter pair, Nicholsargues that most perceptual beliefs depend for their justification upon inferences. The Way of Ideas holds that sensations are objects of awareness and that our senses are not robustly unified. Nichols develops Reid's counter-proposals by examining his discussion of the evolutionary purpose ofsensations, and the nature of our awareness of sensations, as well as his intriguing affirmative answer to Molyneux's questions.Nichols brings to the writing of this book a consummate knowledge of Reid's texts, published and unpublished, and a keen appreciation for Reid's responses to his predecessors. He frequently reconstructs arguments in premise/conclusion form, thereby clarifying disputes that have frustrated previous Reid scholarship. This clarification, his lively examples, and his plainspoken style make this book especially readable. Reid's theory of perception is by far the most important feature of Reid'sphilosophical system, and Nichols offers what will be, for a long time to come, the definitive analysis of this theory.
Philosophy

Thomas Reid on Freedom and Morality

Author: William L. Rowe

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 815

In this succinct and well-written book, one of our most eminent philosophers provides a fresh reading of the view of freedom and morality developed by Thomas Reid (1710-1796). Although contemporary theorists have written extensively about the Scottish philosopher's contributions to the theory of knowledge, this is the first book-length study of his contributions to the controversy over freedom and necessity. William L. Rowe argues that Reid developed a subtle, systematic theory of moral freedom based on the idea of the human being as a free and morally responsible agent. He carefully reconstructs the theory and explores the intellectual background to Reid's views in the work of John Locke, Samuel Clarke, and Anthony Collins. Rowe develops a novel account of Reid's conception of free action and relates it to contemporary arguments that moral responsibility for an action implies the power to have done otherwise. Distilling from Reid's work a viable version of the agency theory of freedom and responsibility, he suggests how Reid's theory can be defended against the major objections—both historical and contemporary—that have been advanced against it. Blending to good effect historical and philosophical analysis, Thomas Reid on Freedom and Morality should interest philosophers, political theorists, and intellectual historians.
Philosophy

Thomas Reid's Ethics

Author: William C. Davis

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 422

Thomas Reid (1710-96) was one of the most daring and original thinkers of the eighteenth century. His work became the cornerstone of the Scottish School of Common Sense Philosophy, and was highly influential in nineteenth-century America; it also anticipated the thinking of such twentieth-century figures as Moore and Wittgenstein. Now, after a long period of neglect, his philosophy is again the subject of increasing attention across the world. For Reid, knowing about ethics is a matter of having 'good evidence' supplied by a sense-like moral faculty. William Davis's book shows how such a view can be both consistent and plausible in the twenty-first century. Thomas Reid's Ethics begins by characterizing the state of moral epistemology at the time when Reid was writing. It goes on to recount Reid's central claims about the moral sense, and describes the various problems that confront those who would explain and defend his views. Davis lays the foundation for resolving these difficulties by detailing an epistemological conception of evidence which parallels the legal conception of evidence used by the Scottish courts of Reid's day. He then shows how Reid's claims about evidence and self-evidence are best understood in light of this legal model. The book concludes by responding to recent worries about 'moral sense' theories, and offers a final assessment of the success of Reid's ethical project. The book will be of substantial interest not only to Reid scholars and historians of philosophy, but also to specialists and students in contemporary ethics.
Philosophy

Kant and Critique: New Essays in Honor of W.H. Werkmeister

Author: R.M. Dancy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 200

View: 819

On 5-6 April 1991, there was a conference on Kant at Florida State University; this volume collects the (revised versions ofthe) papers presented on that occasion. The occasion was, give or take a few months, the 90th birthday of Professor (Emeritus) William H. Werkmeister. Werkie (as all his friends call hirn) hirnself gave the final paper at this conference. Hence the inclusion of a paper by Werkie in a volume honoring hirn. Although he is primarily known for his expertise in the field of Kantian philosophy, Werkie's published scholarship has spanned a wide range of subjects for more than fifty years: his first book, A Philosophy of Science, appeared in 1940; today, among other endeavors, he is at work on a book on Heidegger, and there have been other books and more than a hundred papers in between. Readers interested in fuller biographical information about Werkie should consult the first three papers in the 1 Festschrift celebrating his eightieth hirthday in 1981. Since then, Werkie's activities have continued without much letup. He no longer teaches regularly, hut he gives frequent colloquia in the Philosophy Department here, participates in conferences on Kant around the world, and continues to puhlish, particularly on Kant and Nicolai Hartmann. Wayne McEvilly, 'The Teacher Remembered'; Charles H.
Philosophy

Idealism

Author: Tyron Goldschmidt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 590

Idealism is a family of metaphysical views each of which gives priority to the mental. The best-known forms of idealism in Western philosophy are Berkeleyan idealism, which gives ontological priority to the mental (minds and ideas) over the physical (bodies), and Kantian idealism, which gives a kind of explanatory priority to the mental (the structure of the understanding) over the physical (the structure of the empirical world). Although idealism was once a dominant view in Western philosophy, it has suffered almost total neglect over the last several decades. This book rectifies this situation by bringing together seventeen essays by leading philosophers on the topic of metaphysical idealism. The various essays explain, attack, or defend a variety of idealistic theories, including not only Berkeleyan and Kantian idealisms but also those developed in traditions less familiar to analytic philosophers, including Buddhism and Hassidic Judaism. Although a number of the articles draw on historical sources, all will be of interest to philosophers working in contemporary metaphysics. This volume aims to spark a revival of serious philosophical interest in metaphysical idealism.