Science

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996

Author: M. Kulmala

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 967

View: 991

This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 - 30 August 1996. The first conference of this series took place in Dublin (1955); second, Basel and Locarno (1956); third, Cambridge (1958); fourth, Frankfurt am Main and Heidelberg (1961); fifth, Clermont-Ferrand and Tolouse (1963); sixth, Albany and University Park (1966); seventh, Prague and Vienna (1969); eighth, Leningrad (1973); ninth, Galway (1977); tenth, Hamburg (1981); eleventh Budapest (1984); twelfth, Vienna (1988); thirteenth, Salt Lake City (1992). The Atmospheric Aerosol conference has been held jointly with the Nucleation Symposium since 1988 in Vienna in order to stimulate contacts between researchers in these closely related fields. The broad nature of the meeting and the scientific program resulted in 32 countries submitting papers for presentation. Covering both experimental and theoretical studies these papers are divided amongst the chapters on Nucleation, Stratospheric Aerosols and Ice Nucleation, Tropospheric Aerosols and Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction. In addition to these contributed papers invitations to present a plenary lecture on topics of particular current interest were accepted by P.J. Crutzen, J. Gras, J.L. Katz, A.A. Lushnikov, D. Oxtoby, J.E. Penner, Th. Peter, F. Raes, S.E. Schwartz, R. Strey and G. Vali. These plenary papers together with the contributed papers provide a well-balanced perspective of the current research over the entire field and highlight some important issues.
Science

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, 1996

Author: Markku Kulmala

Publisher: Pergamon Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 967

View: 350

This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 - 30 August 1996. The first conference of this series took place in Dublin (1955); second, Basel and Locarno (1956); third, Cambridge (1958); fourth, Frankfurt am Main and Heidelberg (1961); fifth, Clermont-Ferrand and Tolouse (1963); sixth, Albany and University Park (1966); seventh, Prague and Vienna (1969); eighth, Leningrad (1973); ninth, Galway (1977); tenth, Hamburg (1981); eleventh Budapest (1984); twelfth, Vienna (1988); thirteenth, Salt Lake City (1992). The Atmospheric Aerosol conference has been held jointly with the Nucleation Symposium since 1988 in Vienna in order to stimulate contacts between researchers in these closely related fields. The broad nature of the meeting and the scientific program resulted in 32 countries submitting papers for presentation. Covering both experimental and theoretical studies these papers are divided amongst the chapters on Nucleation, Stratospheric Aerosols and Ice Nucleation, Tropospheric Aerosols and Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction. In addition to these contributed papers invitations to present a plenary lecture on topics of particular current interest were accepted by P.J. Crutzen, J. Gras, J.L. Katz, A.A. Lushnikov, D. Oxtoby, J.E. Penner, Th. Peter, F. Raes, S.E. Schwartz, R. Strey and G. Vali. These plenary papers together with the contributed papers provide a well-balanced perspective of the current research over the entire field and highlight some important issues.
Science

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols

Author: Colin D. O'Dowd

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 1256

View: 262

Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions
Technology & Engineering

Nucleation Theory and Applications

Author: Jürn W. P. Schmelzer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 218

An overview of recent developments in the field of first-order phase transitions, which may be considered a continuation of the previous work 'Aggregation Phenomena in Complex Systems', covering work done and discussed since then. Each chapter features a different aspect of the field written by international specialists, and covers such topics as nucleation and crystallization kinetic of silicate glasses, nucleation in concentration gradients, the determination of coefficients of emission of nucleation theory, diamonds from vitreous carbon.
Science

Carbonaceous Aerosol

Author: András Gelencsér

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 734

The concept of carbonaceous aerosol has only recently emerged from atmospheric pollution studies; even standard nomenclature and terminology are still unsettled. This monograph is the first to offer comprehensive coverage of the nature and atmospheric role of carbonaceous aerosol particles. Atmospheric chemists, physicists, meteorologists, and modellers will find this a thought-inspiring and sometimes provocative overview of all global phenomena affected by or related to carbonaceous aerosol.
Science

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

Author: John H. Seinfeld

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 1152

View: 683

Expanded and updated with new findings and new features New chapter on Global Climate providing a self-contained treatment of climate forcing, feedbacks, and climate sensitivity New chapter on Atmospheric Organic Aerosols and new treatment of the statistical method of Positive Matrix Factorization Updated treatments of physical meteorology, atmospheric nucleation, aerosol-cloud relationships, chemistry of biogenic hydrocarbons Each topic developed from the fundamental science to the point of application to real-world problems New problems at an introductory level to aid in classroom teaching
Science

Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XIV

Author: Sven-Erik Gryning

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 764

View: 954

Proceedings of the Millennium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, held May 15-19 in Boulder, Colorado. This volume is the latest in a series of proceedings dating back to 1971. The book addresses the problem of air pollution and reports the latest findings and developments in air pollution modeling, from a truly international list of contributors.
Science

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Author: David Cuff

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 684

View: 351

In recent years, global change has become increasingly important in technological, ecological and political spheres. This companion examines the environmental events of recent times, and investigates long-term trends as well as broader issues of global change.
Science

Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere

Author: Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 969

View: 755

Here is the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of one of the hottest areas of chemical research. The treatment of fundamental kinetics and photochemistry will be highly useful to chemistry students and their instructors at the graduate level, as well as postdoctoral fellows entering this new, exciting, and well-funded field with a Ph.D. in a related discipline (e.g., analytical, organic, or physical chemistry, chemical physics, etc.). Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere provides postgraduate researchers and teachers with a uniquely detailed, comprehensive, and authoritative resource. The text bridges the "gap" between the fundamental chemistry of the earth's atmosphere and "real world" examples of its application to the development of sound scientific risk assessments and associated risk management control strategies for both tropospheric and stratospheric pollutants. Serves as a graduate textbook and "must have" reference for all atmospheric scientists Provides more than 5000 references to the literature through the end of 1998 Presents tables of new actinic flux data for the troposphere and stratospher (0-40km) Summarizes kinetic and photochemical date for the troposphere and stratosphere Features problems at the end of most chapters to enhance the book's use in teaching Includes applications of the OZIPR box model with comprehensive chemistry for student use
Science

Cirrus

Author: David K. Lynch

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 316

Cirrus clouds are high, thin, tropospheric clouds composed predominately of ice. In the last ten years, considerable work has shown that cirrus is widespread--more common than previously believed--and has a significant impact on climate and global change. As the next generation weather satellites are being designed, the impact of cirrus on remote sensing and the global energy budget must be recognized and accommodated. This book, the first to be devoted entirely to cirrus clouds, captures the state of knowledge of cirrus and serves as a practical handbook as well. Each chapter is based on an invited review talk presented at Cirrus, a meeting hosted by the Optical Society of America and co-sponsored by the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. All aspects of cirrus clouds are covered, an approach that reaches into diverse fields. Topics include: the definition of cirrus, cirrus climatologies, nucleation, evolution and dissipation, mixed-phase thermodynamics, crystallinity, orientation mechanisms, dynamics, scattering, radiative transfer, in situ sampling, processes that produce or influence cirrus (and vice versa), contrails, and the influence of cirrus on climate.
Science

Kinetics of First Order Phase Transitions

Author: Vitaly V. Slezov

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 986

Filling a gap in the literature, this crucial publication on the renowned Lifshitz-Slezov-Wagner Theory of first-order phase transitions is authored by one of the scientists who gave it its name. Prof Slezov spent decades analyzing this topic and obtained a number of results that form the cornerstone of this rapidly developing branch of science. Following an analysis of unresolved problems together with proposed solutions, the book develops a theoretical description of the overall course of first-order phase transformations, starting from the nucleation state right up to the late stages of coarsening. In so doing, the author illustrates the results by way of numerical computations and experimental applications. The outline of the general results is performed for segregation processes in solutions and the results used in the analysis of a variety of different topics, such as phase formation in multi-component solutions, boiling in one- and multi-component liquids, vacancy cluster evolution in solids with and without influence of radiation, as well as phase separation in helium at low temperatures. The result is a detailed overview of the theoretical description of the whole course of nucleation-growth processes and applications for a wide audience of scientists and students.
Nature

Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment

Author: Kvetoslav R. Spurny

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 640

View: 701

A compilation of the most important aerosol chemical processes involved in known scientific and technological disciplines, Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment serves as a handbook for aerosol chemistry. Aerosol science is interdisciplinary, interfacing with many environmental, biological and technological research fields. Aerosols and aerosol research play an important role in both basic and applied scientific and technological fields. Interdisciplinary cooperation is useful and necessary. Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment uses several examples to show the impact of aerosol chemistry in several different fields, mainly in basic and atmospheric research. The book describes the most important chemical processes involved in the various scientific and technological disciplines.
Science

Atmospheric Aerosols

Author: S Ramachandran

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 298

This book includes basic knowledge and understanding on the characteristics of aerosols over the continent and oceanic regions, their composition, residence times, sinks and size distributions, and their effects in the radiative transfer and climate of Earth.
Science

Advances in Quantum Chemistry

Author: John R. Sabin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 557

Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current developments in this rapidly developing field that falls between the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. With invited reviews written by leading international researchers, each presenting new results, it provides a single vehicle for following progress in this interdisciplinary area. Theoretical methods have dramatically extended the reach and grasp of atmospheric scientists. This edition of Advances in Quantum Chemistry collects a broad range of articles that provide reports from the leading edge of this interaction. The chemical systems span the range from atoms to clusters to droplets. Electronic structure calculations are used to uncover the details of the breakdown and removal of emissions from the atmosphere and the simultaneous development of air pollution including ozone and particles. The anomalous enrichment of heavy isotopes in atmospheric ozone is discussed using RRKM theory, and a number of techniques are presented for calculating the effect of isotopic substitution on the absorption spectra of atmospheric molecules. * Publishes articles, invited reviews and proceedings of major international conferences and workshops * Written by leading international researchers in quantum and theoretical chemistry * Highlights important interdisciplinary developments
Science

Global Atmospheric Change and its Impact on Regional Air Quality

Author: Ian Barnes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 354

The NATO ARW in Irkutsk was an excellent occasion for the coming together of Eastern and Western scientists who are involved in tropospheric science; the workshop has greatly contributed to the scientific and social understanding among the participants from the many different countries. Many new personal contacts were made which will help to strengthen future collaborations. In particular, the Lake Baikal area and the Limnological Institute offer splendid opportunities for environmental research which, in part, is already on going. For most participants it was the first time to see the impressive nature of the Lake Baikal region. Hopefully, there will be a chance for a follow-up event in Siberia where researchers from the East and West can again meet and engage in fruitful scientific dialogue. The book contains extended abstracts of the lectures and the poster presentations presented at the NATO ARW "Global Atmospheric Change and its Impact on Regional Air Quality" Irkutsk, Lake Baikal, Russian Federation, August 21-27, 2001. The ARW was composed of 22 oral presentations by key lecturers and 6 additional shorter oral presentations from participants. In a special poster session the 36 poster contributions were presented and discussed. Unfortunately not all contributors submitted extended abstracts, however, to compensate two contributions have been added from 2 participants who were originally invited but were unable to attend.
Science

Aqueous Systems at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

Author: Roberto Fernandez-Prini

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 766

View: 611

The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has produced this book in order to provide an accessible, up-to-date overview of important aspects of the physical chemistry of aqueous systems at high temperatures and pressures. These systems are central to many areas of scientific study and industrial application, including electric power generation, industrial steam systems, hydrothermal processing of materials, geochemistry, and environmental applications. The authors’ goal is to present the material at a level that serves both the graduate student seeking to learn the state of the art, and also the industrial engineer or chemist seeking to develop additional expertise or to find the data needed to solve a specific problem. The wide range of people for whom this topic is important provides a challenge. Advanced work in this area is distributed among physical chemists, chemical engineers, geochemists, and other specialists, who may not be aware of parallel work by those outside their own specialty. The particular aspects of high-temperature aqueous physical chemistry of interest to one industry may be irrelevant to another; yet another industry might need the same basic information but in a very different form. To serve all these constituencies, the book includes several chapters that cover the foundational thermophysical properties (such as gas solubility, phase behavior, thermodynamic properties of solutes, and transport properties) that are of interest across numerous applications. The presentation of these topics is intended to be accessible to readers from a variety of backgrounds. Other chapters address fundamental areas of more specialized interest, such as critical phenomena and molecular-level solution structure. Several chapters are more application-oriented, addressing areas such as power-cycle chemistry and hydrothermal synthesis. As befits the variety of interests addressed, some chapters provide more theoretical guidance while others, such as those on acid/base equilibria and the solubilities of metal oxides and hydroxides, emphasize experimental techniques and data analysis. - Covers both the theory and applications of all Hydrothermal solutions - Provides an accessible, up-to-date overview of important aspects of the physical chemistry of aqueous systems at high temperatures and pressures - The presentation of the book is understandable to readers from a variety of backgrounds