Science

Ocean Processes in Climate Dynamics

Author: Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 437

View: 990

One of the most crucial but still very poorly understood topics of oceanographic science is the role of ocean processes in contributing to the dynamics of climate and global change. This book presents a series of high level lectures on the major categories of ocean/atmosphere processes. Three of these major issues are the focus of the lectures: (1) air--sea interaction processes; (2) water mass formation, dispersion and mixing; (3) general circulation, with specific emphasis on the thermohaline component. Global examples in the world ocean are provided and discussed in the lectures. In parallel, the Mediterranean Sea is a laboratory basin in providing analogues of the above global processes relevant to climate dynamics. They include the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation with its own `conveyor belt'; intermediate and deep water mass formation and transformations, dispersion and mixing. No other book in the field provides a review of fundamental lectures on these processes, coupled with global examples and their Mediterranean analogues.
Science

Ocean Processes in Climate Dynamics

Author: P.M. Malanotte-Rizzoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 437

View: 295

One of the most crucial but still very poorly understood topics of oceanographic science is the role of ocean processes in contributing to the dynamics of climate and global change. This book presents a series of high level lectures on the major categories of ocean/atmosphere processes. Three of these major issues are the focus of the lectures: (1) air--sea interaction processes; (2) water mass formation, dispersion and mixing; (3) general circulation, with specific emphasis on the thermohaline component. Global examples in the world ocean are provided and discussed in the lectures. In parallel, the Mediterranean Sea is a laboratory basin in providing analogues of the above global processes relevant to climate dynamics. They include the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation with its own `conveyor belt'; intermediate and deep water mass formation and transformations, dispersion and mixing. No other book in the field provides a review of fundamental lectures on these processes, coupled with global examples and their Mediterranean analogues.
Science

Climate Dynamics

Author: Kerry H. Cook

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 912

Climate Dynamics is an advanced undergraduate-level textbook that provides an essential foundation in the physical understanding of the earth's climate system. The book assumes no background in atmospheric or ocean sciences and is appropriate for any science or engineering student who has completed two semesters of calculus and one semester of calculus-based physics. Describing the climate system based on observations of the mean climate state and its variability, the first section of the book introduces the vocabulary of the field, the dependent variables that characterize the climate system, and the typical approaches taken to display these variables. The second section of the book gives a quantitative understanding of the processes that determine the climate state--radiation, heat balances, and the basics of fluid dynamics. Applications for the atmosphere, ocean, and hydrological cycle are developed in the next section, and the last three chapters of the book directly address global climate change. Throughout, the textbook makes connections between mathematics and physics in order to illustrate the usefulness of mathematics, particularly first-year calculus, for predicting changes in the physical world. Climate change will impact every aspect of life in the coming decades. This book supports and broadens understanding of the dynamics of the climate system by offering a much-needed introduction that is accessible to any science, math, or engineering student. Makes a physically based, quantitative understanding of climate change accessible to all science, engineering, and mathematics undergraduates Explains how the climate system works and why the climate is changing Reinforces, applies, and connects the basic ideas of calculus and physics Emphasizes fundamental observations and understanding An online illustration package and solutions manual for professors is available
Science

Ocean Circulation

Author: Rui Xin Huang

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 791

View: 432

The modeling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science.
Science

Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics

Author: John Marshall

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 930

For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the material.
Science

Dynamics of The Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans

Author: Peter J. Webster

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 657

This book presents a unique and comprehensive view of the fundamental dynamical and thermodynamic principles underlying the large circulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system Dynamics of The Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans provides a detailed description of macroscale tropical circulation systems such as the monsoon, the Hadley and Walker Circulations, El Niño, and the tropical ocean warm pool. These macroscale circulations interact with a myriad of higher frequency systems, ranging from convective cloud systems to migrating equatorial waves that attend the low-frequency background flow. Towards understanding and predicting these circulation systems. A comprehensive overview of the dynamics and thermodynamics of large-scale tropical atmosphere and oceans is presented using both a “reductionist” and “holistic” perspectives of the coupled tropical system. The reductionist perspective provides a detailed description of the individual elements of the ocean and atmospheric circulations. The physical nature of each component of the tropical circulation such as the Hadley and Walker circulations, the monsoon, the incursion of extratropical phenomena into the tropics, precipitation distributions, equatorial waves and disturbances described in detail. The holistic perspective provides a physical description of how the collection of the individual components produces the observed tropical weather and climate. How the collective tropical processes determine the tropical circulation and their role in global weather and climate is provided in a series of overlapping theoretical and modelling constructs. The structure of the book follows a graduated framework. Following a detailed description of tropical phenomenology, the reader is introduced to dynamical and thermodynamical constraints that guide the planetary climate and establish a critical role for the tropics. Equatorial wave theory is developed for simple and complex background flows, including the critical role played by moist processes. The manner in which the tropics and the extratropics interact is then described, followed by a discussion of the physics behind the subtropical and near-equatorial precipitation including arid regions. The El Niño phenomena and the monsoon circulations are discussed, including their covariance and predictability. Finally, the changing structure of the tropics is discussed in terms of the extent of the tropical ocean warm pool and its relationship to the intensity of global convection and climate change. Dynamics of the Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans is aimed at advanced undergraduate and early career graduate students. It also serves as an excellent general reference book for scientists interested in tropical circulations and their relationship with the broader climate system.
Science

Numerical Models of Oceans and Oceanic Processes

Author: Lakshmi H. Kantha

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 750

View: 104

Oceans play a pivotal role in our weather and climate. Ocean-borne commerce is vital to our increasingly close-knit global community. Yet we do not fully understand the intricate details of how they function, how they interact with the atmosphere, and what the limits are to their biological productivity and their tolerance to wastes. While satellites are helping us to fill in the gaps, numerical ocean models are playing an important role in increasing our ability to comprehend oceanic processes, monitor the current state of the oceans, and to a limited extent, even predict their future state. Numerical Models of Oceans and Oceanic Processes is a survey of the current state of knowledge in this field. It brings together a discussion of salient oceanic dynamics and processes, numerical solution methods, and ocean models to provide a comprehensive treatment of the topic. Starting with elementary concepts in ocean dynamics, it deals with equatorial, mid-latitude, high latitude, and coastal dynamics from the perspective of a modeler. A comprehensive and up-to-date chapter on tides is also included. This is followed by a discussion of different kinds of numerical ocean models and the pre- and post-processing requirements and techniques. Air-sea and ice-ocean coupled models are described, as well as data assimilation and nowcast/forecasts. Comprehensive appendices on wavelet transforms and empirical orthogonal functions are also included. This comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the field should be of interest to oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, and climatologists. While some prior knowledge of oceans and numerical modeling is helpful, the book includes an overview of enough elementary material so that along with its companion volume, Small Scale Processes in Geophysical Flows, it should be useful to both students new to the field and practicing professionals. * Comprehensive and up-to-date review * Useful for a two-semester (or one-semester on selected topics) graduate level course * Valuable reference on the topic * Essential for a better understanding of weather and climate
Science

Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics

Author: John Marshall

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 516

For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the material.
Science

The Continental Crust

Author: Rolf Meissner

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 426

View: 663

For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the material.
Science

Large-Scale Transport Processes in Oceans and Atmosphere

Author: J. Willebrand

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 380

View: 344

One of the major experiments in earth science at the present time is about to begin: the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). The objectives of WCRP are to determine the extent to which climate change can be predicted, and the extent to which human activities (such as increasing the level of CO ) can influence our climate. 2 To understand and possibly to predict climate change, one needs a good understanding of the dynamics of the ocean, the atmosphere, and the processes by which they are coupled. Two major programs are being developed within WCRP: TOGA (Tropical Oceans, Global Atmosphere) and WOCE (World Ocean CirculatIon Experiment). The success of these programs will depend on many things, not least of which is the existence of a pool of active young researchers. This NATO Advanced Study Institute brought together students and young scientists from 13 countries, most of them from Europe and North America. The objective was to provide them with a background in the perceived state of knowledge of atmosphere and ocean dynamics, and to mediate a flavour of the problems presently concerning scientists active in climate related dynamics. In the past, the two disciplines of oceanography and meteorology have largely been carried out separately. But for climate research both disciplines must interact strongly, and another ob jecti ve of this school was to bring together both oceanographers and meteorologists. To promote an integrated approach, the lecture presentations were divided into two formats.
Science

Climate Sensitivity to Radiative Perturbations

Author: Herve LeTreut

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 189

Current climate models diverge in their assessment of global warming that will result from the anthropogenic increase in trace gases. This is because they differ in their representation of the hydrological cycle (water vapour, clouds, snow and sea ice, soil moisture) and because a direct validation in terms of sensitivity is not possible. Indirect methods and approaches are therefore necessary to verify the models efficiently. The book provides an overview on different validation approaches. The use of satellite data is particularly stressed.
Science

Our Warming Planet: Topics In Climate Dynamics

Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 444

View: 178

The processes and consequences of climate change are extremely heterogeneous, encompassing many different fields of study. Dr David Rind in his career at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and as a professor at Columbia University has had the opportunity to explore many of these subjects with colleagues from these diverse disciplines. It was therefore natural for the Lectures in Climate Change series to begin with his colleagues contributing lectures on their specific areas of expertise.This first volume, entitled Our Warming Planet: Topics in Climate Dynamics, encompasses topics such as natural and anthropogenic climate forcing, climate modeling, radiation, clouds, atmospheric dynamics/storms, hydrology, clouds, the cryosphere, paleoclimate, sea level rise, agriculture, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change education. Included with this publication are downloadable PowerPoint slides of each lecture for students and teachers around the world to be better able to understand various aspects of climate change.The lectures on climate change processes and consequences provide snapshots of the cutting-edge work being done to understand what may well be the greatest challenge of our time, in a form suitable for classroom presentation.
Science

The Eastern Mediterranean as a Laboratory Basin for the Assessment of Contrasting Ecosystems

Author: P.M. Malanotte-Rizzoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 521

View: 783

This book is the outcome of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "The Eastern Mediterranean as a laboratory basin for the assessment of contrasting ecosystems" that was held in Kiev, Ukraine, March 23-27, 1998. The scientific rationale of the workshop can be summarized as follows. The Eastern Mediterranean is the most nutrient impoverished and oligotrophic large water body known. There is a well-defined eastward trend in nutrient ratios over the entire Mediterranean that starts at the Gibraltar Straits and, through the western basin, proceeds to the Ionian and Levantine Seas. Supply of nutrients to the entire Mediterranean is limited by inputs from the North Atlantic and various river systems along the sea. The unique feature of the Mediterranean is the presence of an eastward longitudinal trend in available nitrate/phosphate ratios. This apparently induces a west-to-east variation in the structure of the pelagic food web and trophic interactions. In this context the Mediterranean, and in particular its Eastern basin, provides probably a unique platform to explore the hypotheses related to the suggested phosphate-limitation on production and to the shift between "microbial" and "classical" modes of operation of the photic food web. The major exception of the overall oligotrophic nature of the Eastern Mediterranean is the highly eutrophic system of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Here, during the last two decades the discharges of the northern rivers (especially of the Po), together with municipal sewage, have led to a very marked increase of nutrients and subsequent imponent eutrophication events.
Science

Nonlinear Climate Dynamics

Author: Henk A. Dijkstra

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 357

View: 782

This book introduces stochastic dynamical systems theory in order to synthesize our current knowledge of climate variability. Nonlinear processes, such as advection, radiation and turbulent mixing, play a central role in climate variability. These processes can give rise to transition phenomena, associated with tipping or bifurcation points, once external conditions are changed. The theory of dynamical systems provides a systematic way to study these transition phenomena. Its stochastic extension also forms the basis of modern (nonlinear) data analysis techniques, predictability studies and data assimilation methods. Early chapters apply the stochastic dynamical systems framework to a hierarchy of climate models to synthesize current knowledge of climate variability. Later chapters analyse phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, El Niño/Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, Dansgaard-Oeschger Events, Pleistocene Ice Ages, and climate predictability. This book will prove invaluable for graduate students and researchers in climate dynamics, physical oceanography, meteorology and paleoclimatology.
Science

Physical Oceanography and Climate

Author: Kris Karnauskas

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 907

An engaging and accessible textbook focusing on climate dynamics from the perspective of the ocean, specifically interactions between the atmosphere and ocean. It describes the fundamental physics and dynamics governing the behaviour of the ocean, and provides numerous end-of-chapter questions and access to online data sets.
Science

Modern Approaches to Data Assimilation in Ocean Modeling

Author: P. Malanotte-Rizzoli

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 575

The field of oceanographic data assimilation is now well established. The main area of concern of oceanographic data assimilation is the necessity for systematic model improvement and ocean state estimation. In this respect, the book presents the newest, innovative applications combining the most sophisticated assimilation methods with the most complex ocean circulation models. Ocean prediction has also now emerged as an important area in itself. The book contains reviews of scientific oceanographic issues covering different time and space scales. The application of data assimilation methods can provide significant advances in the understanding of this subject. Also included are the first, recent developments in the forecasting of oceanic flows. Only original articles that have undergone full peer review are presented, to ensure the highest scientific quality. This work provides an excellent coverage of state-of-the-art oceanographic data assimilation.
Science

Decadal Climate Variability

Author: David L.T. Anderson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 265

On decadal time scales, climate change may result not only from man-made causes, but also from natural processes. This book brings together theoretical conceptions of the physical mechanisms of climate change with observational evidence of these changes. The following key topics are included: Observed Climatic Variability, Predictability of the Atmosphere and Oceans from Days to Decades, and Mechanisms for Decadal to Centennial Climate Variability. Further, there are specialised contributions on the role of the oceanic circulation in climate change. The authors are renowned for their pedagogical skills, and the book is primarily designed for beginners in the field, who have a background in physical science. In addition, it is an invaluable source of information for scientists seeking an overview on climate dynamics.
Science

The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean

Author: Edward Lyn Lewis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 623

View: 814

Following a decision by the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board (AOSB) in July 1996 the then chainnan, Geoffrey Holland, wrote a letter of invitation to a meeting to plan a "Symposium on the Freshwater Balance of the Arctic". The meeting was held in Ottawa on November 12-13 1996 and was attended by representatives of various organisations, including the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), as well as individual scientists. Results of this meeting included: • Co-sponsorship with AOSB by the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR), the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) and the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). • A decision to apply for funding as a Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Scientific Affairs Division. • That expenses would be covered in part by funds available through an existing NSF grant to the SCOR Executive offices in Baltimore, MD. • The appointment of myself to be Chairman/Manager for the Symposium. • Provision of a recommended list of Scientific Advisors to assist the Chainnan in selecting key speakers.