Encourage an appreciation of organic chemistry, its practice, and its application to the "real world" with Essentials of Organic Chemistry. Designed to supplement a one-semester organic chemistry lecture course, this laboratory text provides various experiments covering a wide range of difficulty, instrumentation, and chemical techniques. Basic information concerning lab safety, waste disposal, and instrumental methods are also included along with experiments that illustrate basic organic chemical reactions relating to everyday materials.
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This eighth edition of A First Course in Business Statistics is an introductory business text emphasizing inference, with extensive coverage of data collection and analysis as needed to evaluate the reported results of statistical studies and to make good decisions. As in earlier editions, the text stresses the development of statistical thinking, the assessment of credibility and value of the inferences made from data, both by those who consume and those who produce them. It assumes a mathematical background of basic algebra. A more comprehensive version of the book, Statistics for Business and Economics (8/e), is available for two-term courses or those that include more extensive coverage of special topics. NEW IN THE EIGHTH EDITION Major Content Changes Chapter 2 includes two new optional sections: methods for detecting outliers (Section 2.8) and graphing bivariate relationships (Section 2.9). Chapter 4 now covers descriptive methods for assessing whether a data set is approximately normally distributed (Section 4.8) and normal approximation to the binomial distribution (Section 4.9). Exploring Data with Statistical Computer Software and the Graphing Calculator- Throughout the text, computer printouts from five popular Windows-based statistical software packages (SAS, SPSS, MINITAB, STATISTIX and EXCEL) are displayed and used to make decisions about the data. New to this edition, we have included instruction boxes and output for the TI-83 graphing calculator. Statistics in Action-One feature per chapter examines current real-life, highprofile issues. Data from the study is presented for analysis. Questions prompt the students to form their own conclusions and to think through the statistical issues involved. Real-World Business Cases-Six extensive business problem-solving cases, with real data and assignments. Each case serves as a good capstone and review of the material that has preceded it. Real-Data Exercises-Almost all the exercises in the text employ the use of current real data taken from a wide variety of publications (e.g., newspapers, magazines, and journals). Quick Review-Each chapter ends with a list of key terms and formulas, with reference to the page number where they first appear. Language Lab-Following the Quick Review is a pronunciation guide for Greek letters and other special terms. Usage notes are also provided. xii TRADITIONAL STRENGTHS We have maintained the features of A First Course in Business Statistics that we believe make it unique among business statistics texts. These features, which assist the student in achieving an overview of statistics and an understanding of its relevance in the business world and in everyday life, are as follows: The Use of Examples as a Teaching Device Almost all new ideas are introduced and illustrated by real data-based applications and examples. We believe that students better understand definitions, generalizations, and abstractions after seeing an application. Many Exercises-Labeled by Type The text includes more than 1,000 exercises illustrated by applications in almost all areas of research. Because many students have trouble learning the mechanics of statistical techniques when problems are couched in terms of realistic applications, all exercise sections are divided into two parts: Learning the Mechanics. Designed as straightforward applications of new concepts, these exercises allow students to test their ability to comprehend a concept or a definition. Applying the Concepts. Based on applications taken from a wide variety of journals, newspapers, and other sources, these exercises develop the student's skills to comprehend real-world problems and describe situations to which the techniques may be applied. A Choice in Level of Coverage of Probability (Chapter 3) One of the most troublesome aspects of an introductory statistics course is the study of probability. Probability poses a challenge for instructors because they must decide on the level of presentation, and students find it a difficult subject to comprehend. We believe that one cause for these problems is the mixture of probability and counting rules that occurs in most introductory texts. We have included the counting rules and worked examples in a separate appendix (Appendix A) at the end of the text. Thus, the instructor can control the level of coverage of probability. Nonparametric Topics Integrated In a one-term course it is often difficult to find time to cover nonparametric techniques when they are relegated to a separate chapter at the end of the book. Consequently, we have integrated the most commonly used techniques in optional sections as appropriate. Coverage of Multiple Regression Analysis (Chapter 10) This topic represents one of the most useful statistical tools for the solution of applied problems. Although an entire text could be devoted to regression modeling, we believe we have presented coverage that is understandable, usable, and much more comprehensive than the presentations in other introductory statistics texts. Footnotes , . Although the text is designed for students with a non-calculus background, footnotes explain the role of calculus in various derivations. Footnotes are also used to inform the student about some of the theory underlying certain results. The footnotes allow additional flexibility in the mathematical and theoretical level at which the material is presented. SUPPLEMENTS FOR THE INSTRUCTOR The supplements for the eighth edition have been completely revised to reflect the revisions of the text. To ensure adherence to the approaches presented in the main text, each element in the package has been accuracy checked for clarity and freedom from computational, typographical, and statistical errors. Annotated Instructor's Edition (AIE) (ISBN 0-1 3-027985-4) Marginal notes placed next to discussions of essential teaching concepts include: Instructor's Notes by Mark Dummeldinger (ISBN 0-1 3-027410-0) 1 Teaching Tips-suggest alternative presentations or point out common stu- This printed resource contains suggestions for using the questions at the end of the Statistics in Action boxes as the basis for class discussion on statistical ethics and other current issues, solutions to the Real-World Cases, a complete short answer book with letter of permission to duplicate for student usc, and many of the exercises and solutions that were removed from previous editions of this text. I Instructor's Solutions Manual by Nancy S. Boudreau (ISBN 0-1 3-027421 -6) dent errors Exercises-reference specific section and chapter exercises that reinforce the concept H-disk icon identifies data sets and file names of material found on the data CD-ROM in the back of the book. Solutions to all of the even-numbered exercises are given in this manual. Careful attention has been paid to ensure that all methods of solution and notation are consistent with those used in the core text. Solutions to the odd-numbered exercises are found in the Student's Solutions Manual. Short Answers-section and chapter exercise answers are provided next to the selected exercises Test Bank by Mark Dummeldinger (ISBN 0-1 3-027419-4) Entirely rewritten, the Test Bank now includes more than 1,000 problems that correlate to problems presented in the text. xiv PREFACE Test Cen-EQ (ISBN 0-1 3-027367-8) Menu-driven random test system Networkable for administering tests and capturing grades online Edit and add your own questions-or use the new "Function Plotter" to create a nearly unlimited number of tests and drill worksheets PowerPoint Presentation Disk by Mark Dummeldinger (ISBN 0-1 3-027365-1) This versatile Windows-based tool may be used by professors in a number of different ways: Slide show in an electronic classroom '. " " Printed and used as transparency masters Printed copies may be distributed to students as a convenient note-taking device Included on the software disk are learning objectives, thinking challenges, concept presentation slides, and examples with worked-out solutions. The PowerPoint Presentation Disk may be downloaded from the FTP site found at the McClave Web site. ( I, Data CD-ROM-available free with every text purchased from Prentice Hall (ISBN 0-1 3-027293-0) The data sets for all exercises and cases are available in ASCII format on a CDROM in the back of the book. When a given data set is referenced, a disk symbol and the file name will appear in the text near the exercise. McClave Internet Site (http://www.prenhall.com/mcclave) This site will be updated throughout the year as new information, tools, and applications become available. The site contains information about the book and its supplements as well as FTP sites for downloading the PowerPoint Presentation Disk and the Data Files. Teaching tips and student help are provided as well as links to useful sources of data and information such as the Chance Database, the STEPS project (interactive tutorials developed by the University of Glasgow), and a site designed to help faculty establish and manage course home pages. SUPPLEMENTS AVAILABLE FOR STUDENTS Student's Solutions Manual by Nancy S . Boudreau 'I - (ISBN 0-1 3-027422-4) Fully worked-out solutions to all of the odd-numbered exercises are provided in this manual. Careful attention has been paid to ensure that all methods of solution and notation are consistent with those used in the core text. - Companion Microsoft Excel Manual by Mark Dummeldinger (ISBN 0-1 3-029347-4) Each companion manual works hand-in-glove with the text. Step-by-step keystroke level instructions, with screen captures, provide detailed help for using the technology to work pertinent examples and all of the technology projects in the text. A cross-reference chart indicates which text examples are included and the exact page reference in both the text and technology manual. Output with brief instruction is provided for selected odd-numbered exercises to reinforce the examples. A Student Lab section is included at the end of each chapter. The Excel Manual includes PHstat, a statistics add-in for Microsoft Excel (CD-ROM) featuring a custom menu of choices that lead to dialog boxes to help perform statistical analyses more quickly and easily than off-the-shelf Excel permits. Student Version of SPSS Student versions of SPSS, the award-winning and market-leading commercial and data analysis package, and MINITAB are available for student purchase. Details on all current products are available from Prentice Hall or via the SPSS Web site at http://www.spss.com. Learning Business Statistics with ~icrosoft' Excel by John L. Neufeld (ISBN 0-13-234097-6) The use of Excel as a data analysis and computational package for statistics is explained in clear, easy-to-follow steps in this self-contained paperback text. A MINITAB Guide to Statistics by Ruth Meyer and David Krueger (ISBN 0-1 3-784232-5) This manual assumes no prior knowledge of MINITAB. Organized to correspond to the table of contents of most statistics texts, this manual provides step-by-step instruction to using MINITAB for statistical analysis. ConStatS by Tufts University (ISBN 0-1 3-502600-8) ConStatS is a set of Microsoft Windows-based programs designed to help college students understand concepts taught in a first-semester course on probability and statistics. ConStatS helps improve students' conceptual understanding of statistics by engaging them in an active, experimental style of learning. A companion ConStatS workbook (ISBN 0-13-522848-4) that guides students through the labs and ensures they gain the maximum benefit is also available. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book reflects the efforts of a great many people over a number of years. First we would like to thank the following professors whose reviews and feedback on organization and coverage contributed to the eighth and previous editions of the book. xvi PREFACE Reviewers Involved with the Eighth Edition Mary C. Christman, University of Maryland; James Czachor, Fordham-Lincoln Center, AT&T; William Duckworth 11, Iowa State University; Ann Hussein, Ph.D., Philadelphia University; Lawrence D. Ries, University of Missouri-Columbia. Reviewers of Previous Editions Atul Agarwal, GMI Engineering and Management Institute; Mohamed Albohali, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Gordon J. Alexander, University of Minnesota; Richard W. Andrews, University of Michigan; Larry M. Austin, Texas Tech University; Golam Azam, North Carolina Agricultural & Technical University; Donald W. Bartlett, University of Minnesota; Clarence Bayne, Concordia University; Carl Bedell, Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science; David M. Bergman, University of Minnesota; William H. Beyer, University of Akron; Atul Bhatia, University of Minnesota; Jim Branscome, University of Texas at Arlington; Francis J. Brewerton, Middle Tennessee State University; Daniel G. Brick, University of St. Thomas; Robert W. Brobst, University of Texas at Arlington; Michael Broida, Miami University of Ohio; Glenn J. Browne, University of Maryland, Baltimore; Edward Carlstein, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; John M. Charnes, University of Miami; Chih-Hsu Cheng, Ohio State University; Larry Claypool, Oklahoma State University; Edward R. Clayton, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Ronald L. Coccari, Cleveland State University; Ken Constantine, University of New Hampshire; Lewis Coopersmith, Rider University; Robert Curley, University of Central Oklahoma; Joyce Curley-Daly, California Polytechnic State University; Jim Daly, California Polytechnic State University; Jim Davis, Golden Gate University; Dileep Dhavale, University of Northern Iowa; Bernard Dickman, Hofstra University; Mark Eakin, University of Texas at Arlington; Rick L. Edgeman, Colorado State University; Carol Eger, Stanford University; Robert Elrod, Georgia State University; Douglas A. Elvers, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Iris Fetta, Clemson University; Susan Flach, General Mills, Inc.; Alan E. Gelfand, University of Connecticut; Joseph Glaz, University of Connecticut; Edit Gombay, University of Alberta; Jose Luis Guerrero-Cusumano, Georgetown University; Paul W. Guy, California State University, Chico; Judd Hammack, California State University-Los Angeles; Michael E. Hanna, University of Texas at Arlington; Don Holbert, East Carolina University; James Holstein, University of Missouri, Columbia; Warren M. Holt, Southeastern Massachusetts University; Steve Hora, University of Hawaii, Hilo; Petros Ioannatos, GMI Engineering & Management Institute; Marius Janson, University of Missouri, St. Louis; Ross H. Johnson, Madison College; I? Kasliwal, California State University-Los Ange1es;Timothy J. Killeen, University of Connecticut;Tim Krehbiel, Miami University of Ohio; David D. Krueger, St. Cloud State University; Richard W. Kulp, Wright-Patterson AFB, Air Force Institute of Technology; Mabel T. Kung, California State University-Fullerton; Martin Labbe, State University of New York College at New Paltz; James Lackritz, California State University at San Diego; Lei Lei, Rutgers University; Leigh Lawton, University of St. Thomas; Peter Lenk, University of Michigan; Benjamin Lev, University of Michigan- Dearborn; Philip Levine, William Patterson College; Eddie M. Lewis, University of Southern Mississippi; Fred Leysieffer, Florida State University; Xuan Li, Rutgers University; Pi-Erh Lin, Florida State University; Robert Ling, Clemson University; Benny Lo; Karen Lundquist, University of Minnesota; G. E. Martin, Clarkson University; Brenda Masters, Oklahoma State University; William Q. Meeker, Iowa State University; Ruth K. Meyer, St. Cloud State University; Edward Minieka, University of Illinois at Chicago; Rebecca Moore, Oklahoma State University; June Morita, University of Washington; Behnam Nakhai, Millersville University; Paul I. Nelson, Kansas State University; Paula M. Oas, General Office Products; Dilek Onkal, Bilkent University,Turkey;Vijay Pisharody, University of Minnesota; Rose Prave, University of Scranton; P. V. Rao, University of Florida; Don Robinson, Illinois State University; Beth Rose, University of Southern California; Jan Saraph, St. Cloud State University; Lawrence A. Sherr, University of Kansas; Craig W. Slinkman, University of Texas at Arlingon; Robert K. Smidt, California Polytechnic State University; Toni M. Somers, Wayne State University; Donald N. Steinnes, University of Minnesota at Du1uth;Virgil F. Stone,Texas A & M University; Katheryn Szabet, La Salle University; Alireza Tahai, Mississippi State University; Kim Tamura, University of Washington; Zina Taran, Rutgers University; Chipei Tseng, Northern Illinois University; Pankaj Vaish, Arthur Andersen & Company; Robert W. Van Cleave, University of Minnesota; Charles E Warnock, Colorado State University; Michael P. Wegmann, Keller Graduate School of Management; William J. Weida, United States Air Force Academy; T. J. Wharton, Oakland University; Kathleen M. Whitcomb, University of South Carolina; Edna White, Florida Atlantic University; Steve Wickstrom, University of Minnesota; James Willis, Louisiana State University; Douglas A. Wolfe, Ohio State University; Gary Yoshimoto, St. Cloud State University; Doug Zahn, Florida State University; Fike Zahroom, Moorhead State University; Christopher J. Zappe, Bucknell University. Special thanks are due to our ancillary authors, Nancy Shafer Boudreau and Mark Dummeldinger, and to typist Kelly Barber, who have worked with us for many years. Laurel Technical Services has done an excellent job of accuracy checking the eighth edition and has helped us to ensure a highly accurate, clean text. Wendy Metzger and Stephen M. Kelly should be acknowledged for their help with the TI-83 boxes. The Prentice Hall staff of Kathy Boothby Sestak, Joanne Wendelken, Gina Huck, Angela Battle, Linda Behrens, and Alan Fischer, and Elm Street Publishing Services' Martha Beyerlein helped greatly with all phases of the text development, production, and marketing effort. We acknowledge University of Georgia Terry College of Business MBA students Brian F. Adams, Derek Sean Rolle, and Misty Rumbley for helping us to research and acquire new exerciselcase material. Our thanks to Jane Benson for managing the exercise development process. Finally, we owe special thanks to Faith Sincich, whose efforts in preparing the manuscript for production and proofreading all stages of the book deserve special recognition. For additional information about texts and other materials available from Prentice Hall, visit us on-line at http://www.prenhall.com. James T. McClave P. George Benson Terry Sincich
Author: Benjamin Cummings-Pearson Education, Inc Publishing
MUch has changed in the world since the completion of the previous edition of BIOLOGY. In the realm of the biological sciences, the sequencing of the genomes of many more species has had deep ramifications in diverse areas of research, providing new insights, for example, into the evolutionary histories of numerous species. There has been an explosion of discovery about small RNA molecules and their roles in gene regulation and, at the other end of the size spectrum, our knowledge of Earth's biodiversity has expanded to encompass hundreds of new species, in· eluding parrots, monkeys, and orchids. And during the same period, biology has become more prominent than ever in our daily lives. The news is filled with stories about the promise of personalized medicine, novel cancer treatments, the possibility of producing biofuels with the help ofgenetic engineering, and the use of genetic profiling in solving crimes. Other news stories report climate change and ecological disasters, new drug-resistant strains of the pathogens that cause tuberculosis and parasitic infections, and famine-crises in the world around us that are posing new challenges for biologists and their allies in the other sciences. On a personal level, many colleagues and I have missed our inspiring friend, the late Neil Campbell, even as our commitment to leadership in biological education has grown. Our changing world needs biologists and a scientifically literate citizenry as never be· fore, and we are committed to working toward that goal. The New Coauthors The Seventh Edition of BIOLOGYhas been used by more stu· dents and instructors than any previous edition, remaining the most widely used college textbook in the sciences. With the privilege ofsharing biology with so many students comes the responsibility of improving the book to serve the biology community even better. For that reason, Neil would have been delighted to see that this Eighth Edition fulfills our decade-long goal of expanding the author team. As biological discoveries proliferated, Neil and I realized that it was becoming harder than ever to make judicious decisions about which biological concepts are most im~ portant to develop in depth in an introductory textbook. We needed an author team with first-hand expertise across the bio-logical spectrum, and we wanted coauthorswho had honed their teaching values in the classroom. Our new coauthors-Lisa Urry, Michael Cain, Steve Wasserman, Peter Minorsky, and Rob Jack· son-represent the highest standards of scientific scholarship across a broad range of disciplines and a deep commitment to undergraduate teaching. As described on pages iv-v, their scientific expertise ranges from molecules to ecosystems, and the schools where they teach range from small liberal arts colleges to large universities. In addition, both Lisa and Peter, as major contributors to earlier editions, had prior experience working on the book. The six of us have collaborated unusually closely, starting with book-wide planning meetings and continuing with frequent exchanges ofquestions and advice as we worked on our chapters. For each chapter, the revising author, editors, and I together for· mulated a detailed plan; subsequently, my own role involved commenting on early drafts and polishing the final version. Together, we have strived to extend the book's effectiveness for today's students and instructors, while maintaining its core values. Our Core Values What are the core values ofthis book? They start with getting the science right but then focus on helping students make sense of the science. Below I highlight our longtime values and describe how they've been put into practice in the Eighth Edition. You can see examples of many of the book's features in "To the Student: How to Use This Book" (pp. xiv-xix). Accuracy and Currency Getting the science right goes beyond making sure that the facts are accurate and up· to-date. Equally important is ensuring that our chapters reflect how scientists in the various subdisciplines ofbiology, from cell biology to ecology, currently view their area. Changes in the basic paradigms in various biological fields may call for us to reorganize some chapters and even create new ones in a new edition. For example, a new Chapter 21 discusses genomes and their evolution, and neurobiology is now covered in two chapters (Chapters 48 and 49), one focused on the cellular level and one at the organ system leveL On pages ix-x, you can read more about new content and organizational improvements in the Eighth Edition. A Framework of Key Concepts The explosion ofdiscoveries that makes biology so exciting today also threatens to suffocate students under an avalanche of infor~ mation. Our primary pedagogical goal is to help students build a framework for learning biology by organizing each chapter around a small number of "Key Concepts; typically three to six. Each chapter begins with a list ofits Key Concepts, a photograph that raises an intriguing question, and an Overview section that addresses the question and introduces the chapter. In the body of the chapter, each Key Concept serves as a nwnbered heading for a major section, in which the prose and pictures tell a more detailed story. At the end of each concept section, Concept Check questions enable students to assess their understanding of that concept before going on to the next concept. Students encounter the Key Concepts one last time when they reach the Qlapter Review at the end ofthe chapter; the Summaryof Key Concepts restates them and offers succinct explanatory support in both words and summary diagrams-new to this edition. Active Learning Increasingly, instructors tell us that they want their students to take a more active role in learning biology and to think about biological questions at a higher level. In the Eighth Edition, we provide several new ways for students to engage in active learning. First, the Concept Check questions in this edition build in difficulty, and each set now ends with a new "What if?~ question that challenges students to integrate what they have learned and to think analytically. There are also questions accompanying selected figures within the text; each of these questions encourages students to delve into the figure and assess their understanding of its underlying ideas. And new "Draw It~ exercises in every chapter ask students to put pencil to paper and draw a structure, annotate a figure, or graph experimental data. In addition to appearing regularly in the Chapter Review, a "Draw It~ question may show up in a Concept Check or figure legend. Finally, the website that accompanies the book features two especially exciting new student tools, both of which focus on biology's toughest topics: MasteringBiology tutorials and BioFlix 3-D animations and tutorials. These are described on page xx. Evolution and Other Unifying Themes Together with BIOLOGYs emphasis on key concepts, a thematic approach has always distinguished our book from an encyclopedia of biology. In the Eighth Edition, as previously, the central theme is evolution. Evolution unifies all of biology by accounting for both the unity and diversity of life and for the remarkable adaptations of organisms to their environments. The evolutionary theme is woven into every chapter of BIOLOGY, and Unit Four, Mechanisms of Evolution, has undergone a major revision. In Chapter I, the other unifying themes have been streamlined from ten to six. And throughout the book, these themes are now referenced more explicitly in Key Concepts and subheadings. The former themes of "scientific inquir( and "science, technology, and society" continue to be highlighted throughout the book, not as biological themes but as aspects of how science is done and the role of science in our lives. Integration ofText and Illustrations We regard text and illustrations as equal in importance, and starting with the First Edition, have always developed them simultaneously. The Eighth Edition has a number of new and improved figures, with the increased use of a more threedimensional art style where it can enhance understanding of biological structure. At the same time, we avoid excess detail, which can obscure the main point of the figure. We have also improved our popular "Exploring" Figures and have added more (see the list on p. xii). Each of these large figures is a learning unit that brings together a set of related illustrations and the text that describes them. The Exploring Figures enable students to access dozens of complex topics very efficiently. They are core chapter content, not to be confused with some textbooks' "boxes," which have content peripheral to the flow of a chapter. Modern biology is challenging enough without diverting students' attention from a chapter's conceptual storyline. Telling the Story al the Righi level Whether in pictures or prose, we are committed to explaining biology at just the right level, and we've continued to use Neil's "quantum theory ofteaching biology~ as a touchstone. According to this idea, there are discrete levels at which a concept can be successfully explained, and a successful explanation must avoid getting "stuck bety,.·een levels." Ofcourse, most seasoned instructors have independently recognized this issue, also known as the "too much-too little~ problem. The author team has drawn upon both scientific expertise and teaching experience to tell the story of biology at an appropriate level. The Importance of Scientific Inquiry Another of our core values is our belief in the importance of introducing students to the scientific way of thinking. In both lecture hall and laboratory, the authors and many of our colleagues are experimenting with diverse approaches for involving students in scientific inquiry, the process by which questions about nature are posed and explored. Special features in the textbook and in inquiry-based supplements make this edition of BfOLOGYmore effective than ever in helping instructors convey the process of science in their courses. Modeling Inquiry by Example Every edition of BIOLOGY has traced the history of many research questions and scientific debates to help students appreciate not just "what we know;' but "how we know,~ and "what we do not yet know:' In BfOLOGY, Seventh Edition, we strengthened this aspect of the book by introducing "Inquir( Figures, which showcase examples of experiments and field studies in a format that is consistent throughout the book. Each of these inquiry cases begins with a research question, followed by sections describing the experiment, results, and conclusion. Complementing the Inquiry Figures are "Research Method" Figures, which walk students through the techniques and tools of modern biology. In the Eighth Edition, we have added many more Inquiry Figures; there is now at least one in every chapter and often more (see the list of Inquiry Figures on pp. xii-xiii). Each Preface vii Inquiry Figure now ends with a "What ift question that requires students to demonstrate their understanding of the experiment described. We have also expanded the usefulness of the Inquiry Figures in another important way: In response to feedback from many instructors, we now cite the journal article that is the source of the research, providing a gateway to the primary literature. And the full papers for nine of the Inquiry Figures are reprinted in Inquiry in Action: Interpreting Scientific Papers, by Ruth Buskirk and Christopher Gillen. This new supplement, which can be ordered with the book for no additional charge, provides background information on how to read scientific papers plus specific questions that guide students through the nine featured articles. Learning Inquiry by Practice BIOLOGY, Eighth Edition, encourages students to practice thinking as scientists by tackling the "What if?" questions in the Concept Checks and Inquiry Figures (and occasional figure legends), as well as the "Scientific Inquiry" questions in the Chapter Review. Many of those in the Chapter Reviews ask students to analyze data or to design an experiment. The supplements for the Eighth Edition build on the textbook to provide diverse opportunities for students to practice scientific inquiry in more depth. In addition to Inquiry in Action: Interpreting Scientific Papers, these include new editions ofseveral other supplements that can be made available without cost. One is Biologicallnf[uiry: A Workbook ofInvestigative Cases, Second Edition, by Margaret Waterman and Ethel Stanley; another is Practicing Biology: A Student Workbook, Third Edition, by Jean Heitz and Cynthia Giffen. You can find out more about these and other student supplements, both print and electronic, on pages xx-xxiii. The BIOLOGY Interviews: A Continuing Tradition Scientific inquiry is a social process catalyzed by communi~ cation among people who share a curiosity about nature. One of the many joys of authoring BIOLOGYis the privilege of interviewing some of the world's most influential biologists. Eight new interviews, one opening each unit of the textbook, introduce students to eight of the fascinating individuals who are driving progress in biology and connecting science to society. And in this edition, each unit of the text includes an Inquiry Figure based upon the research of the unit's interviewee; for example, see Inquiry Figure 2.2, on page 31. The interviewees for this edition are listed on page xi. AVersatile Book Our book is intended to serve students as a textbook in their general biology course and also later as a useful tool for review and reference. BIOLOGY's breadth, depth, and versatile organization enable the book to meet these dual goals. Even by limiting our scope to a few Key Concepts per chapter, BIOLOGY spans more biological territory than most introductory viii Preface courses could or should attempt to cover. But given the great diversity of course syllabi, we have opted for a survey broad enough and deep enough to support each instructor's particular emphases. Students also seem to appreciate BIOLOGYs breadth and depth; in this era when students sell many of their textbooks back to the bookstore, more than 75% of students who have used BIOLOGYhave kept it after their introductory course. In fact, we are delighted to receive mail from upper division students and graduate students, including medical students, expressing their appreciation for the long-term value of BIOLOGYas ageneral resource for their continuing education. Just as we recognize that few courses will cover all 56 chapters of the textbook, we also understand that there is no single correct sequence of topics for a general biology course. Though a biology textbook's table of contents must be linear, biology itself is more like a web of related concepts without a fixed starting point or a prescribed path. Diverse courses can navigate this network of concepts starting with molecules and cells, or with evolution and the diversity of organisms, or with the big-picture ideas of ecol· ogy. We have built BIOLOGY to be versatile enough to support these different syllabi. The eight units ofthe book are largely selfcontained, and, for most ofthe units, the chapters can be assigned in a different sequence ""ithout substantial loss ofcoherence. For example, instructors who integrate plant and animal physiology can merge chapters from Unit Six (Plant Form and FlUlction) and Unit Seven (Animal Form and Function) to fit their courses. AJ;, another option, instructors who begin their course with ecology and continue with this top-down approach can assign Unit Eight (Ecology) right after Chapter 1, which introduces the Unifying themes that provide students with a panoramic view of biology no matter what the topic order ofthe course syllabus. Our Partnership with Instructors A core value underlying all our work as authors is our belief in the importance of our partnership with instructors. Our primary way of serving instructors, of course, is providing a textbook that serves their students well. In addition, Benjamin Cummings makes available a wealth of instructor resources, in both print and electronic form (see pp. xx-xxiii). However, our rela~ tionship with instructors is nota one-way street. In our continu~ ing efforts to improve the book and its supplements, we benefit tremendously from instructor feedback, not only in formal re~ views from hundreds ofscientists, but also via informal communication in person and byphone and e-mai1. Neil Campbell built a vast network ofcolleagues throughout the world, and my new coauthors and I are fully committed to continuing that tradition. The real test of any textbook is how well it helps instructors teach and students learn. We welcome comments from the students and professors who use BIOLOGY. Please address your suggestions to me: Jane Reece, Pearson Benjamin Cummings 1301 Sansome Street, San Francisco, CA 94111 E-mail address: J[email protected]