This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.
Interest in organic molecular solids extends to a range of fields including chemistry, physics, electrical engineering, and materials science. In chemistry, it applies to such topics as solid state reactivity, crystal engineering, theoretical approaches to crystal structure determination, and morphology control. In physics, electrical engineering, and materials science, the possibility of producing organic-based materials (such as crystals, polymers, thin films, or liquid crystals) with potential electronic, opto-electronic, and magnetic uses is a major area of current research interest throughout the world. Organic Molecular Solids examines the uses of organic-based materials over a wide range of applications and interests. Each chapter surveys a relevant topic, providing appropriate introductory background information and modern developments.
The history of physics furnishes many examples of how a simple semiem pirical method, essentially based on intuitive considerations, may prove to be much more successful than a rigorous theoretical approach. A pertinent example is the method of atom-atom potentials, which treats the intermolec ular interactions between polyatomic molecules in terms of pairwise inter actions between their constituent atoms. Despite a few conceptual short comings, the method provides a fairly reliable practical means of handling, on a microscopic level, a wide range of problems that arise in the solid-state physics and chemistry of organic compounds. This monograph is an attempt to generalize the experience gained in the past twenty years in interpreting the static and dynamic properties of organic molecular solids in terms of atom-atom potentials. It embraces nearly all aspects of the application of the method, including an evaluation of cohesive energies, equilibrium crystal structures, phonon spectra, ther modynamic functions, and crystal defects. Many related topics such as the effect of the crystal field on molecular conformation, the determination of crystal structures from raw diffraction data, and the problem of polymor phic transitions are also discussed. We believe that this book will be of use to researchers in solid-state physics, chemistry, crystallography, physical chemistry, and polymer chem istry. It also gives us an opportunity to acknowledge our indebtedness to those who sent us published as well as unpublished information and sugges tions, including A.T. Amos, E.L. Bokhenkov, H. Bonadeo, R.K. Boyd, C.P.
Experimental evidence was found for transport of electronic excitation energy in pyrene crystals by trivial transfer, excimer exciton migration, and monomer migration. The relative importance of these various transfer mechanisms depends upon the geometry of the sample, the nature of the acceptors, the acceptor concentration, and the temperature. Trivial transfer was important in the perylene doped samples, but not in the samples containing azulene as the acceptor. The photogeneration of free electrons in the short wavelength region is shown to involve a direct optical transition to a conducting state of the pyrene crystal with a threshold of approx. 4.1 ev. Hole generation in the short wavelength region involves comparable contributions from an intrinsic, as well as an extrinsic, impurity dependent process. Long wavelength generation of holes involves migration of mobile monomer singlet excitons to the surface of the crystal where ionization occurs.
Reporting on advances in the field of molecular solid state chemistry, each volume focuses on selected areas and highlights methods and results in syntheses, properties and applications. The volumes in this series provide a forum for the discussion of chemical, physical, biological and crystallographic aspects of the molecular solid state. Eight chapters focus on the theoretical aspects of the reactivity of solids and the applications that are of practical importance. In a collection of reviews that highlight hot topics in the field of molecular solids, the authors of this volume emphasise the problems facing them. Contents: Interplay between Intra- and Intermolecular Interactions in Solid-State Reactions Cooperative Effects in Solid State Reactions Some Aspects of Bimolecular Photoreactions in Crystals Kinetics and Spatial Propagation of Intramolecular Reactions in Solids Kinetic Descriptions of the Simplest Bimolecular Reactions in Organic Solids Radical Solid-State Reactions at High Pressure Polymorphs and Solvates of Molecular Solids in the Pharmaceutical Industry Mechanochemical Synthesis and Mechanical Activation of Drugs. Reactivity of Molecular Solids will be of interest to all chemists working in the pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries, and also in molecular electronics and materials science.
Theoretical understanding and modeling of the solid state are important tools for further development of solid-state chemistry research. This book provides an overview of the latest developments in computer modeling and theoretical aspects of molecular solid states.