Most organic reactions have long been carried out in organic solvents without concern for their real necessity, reaction efficiency, and pollution problems. Very recently, we have found that most organic reactions can be carried out in the absence of a solvent, namely, in the solid state. In many cases, the solid-state reaction proceeds more easily and efficiently, and even more selectively than solution reaction. This shows that molecules move easily and selectively in the solid state. This finding changed the classical idea which suggests "molecules do not move and reactions do not occur in the solid state", and opened up a new research field for the study molecular dynamics in the solid state. The organic solid state reactions have many possibilities to be developed. For example, enantioselective reactions can easily be accomplished by carrying out the reaction in an inclusion complex crystal with an optically active host compound. Catalytic reactions also proceed in the solid state. Moreover, the solid-state reactions are more economical and ecologically sound. In the future, pollution-free synthetic procedures in the solid state will become increasingly important, not only in chemical industries but also in university laboratories.
Organic Solid-State Chemistry–2 presents the solid state reactions in molecular crystals. This book discusses the correlations of the chemical structures of products from organic solid state reactions with the molecular packing in the reactant crystal structures. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the molecular behavior after the chemical transition state. This text then examines the electron paramagnetic resonance methods, which offer many features in connection with the study of chemical reactions in which a paramagnetic species is a product or a reactant. Other chapters consider the interpretation of radiationless transitions, thermal reactions, and photochemical decompositions and rearrangements. The final chapter deals with the experimental results concerning electron and hole production in anthracene crystals, with emphasis on the relevance of these studies to the fundamental question of the nature of the excess electron states in these low mobility crystals. This book is a valuable resource for solid state chemists, photochemists, spectroscopists, scientists, and research workers.
Green Organic Chemistry and Its Interdisciplinary Applications covers key developments in green chemistry and demonstrates to students that the developments were most often the result of innovative thinking. Using a set of selected experiments, all of which have been performed in the laboratory with undergraduate students, it demonstrates how to optimize and develop green experiments. The book dedicates each chapter to individual applications, such as Engineering The chemical industry The pharmaceutical industry Analytical chemistry Environmental chemistry Each chapter also poses questions at the end, with the answers included. By focusing on both the interdisciplinary applications of green chemistry and the innovative thinking that has produced new developments in the field, this book manages to present two key messages in a manner where they reinforce each other. It provides a single and concise reference for chemists, instructors, and students for learning about green organic chemistry and its great and ever-expanding number of applications.
An important resource that puts the focus on understanding and handling of organic crystals in drug development Since a majority of pharmaceutical solid-state materials are organic crystals, their handling and processing are critical aspects of drug development. Pharmaceutical Crystals: Science and Engineering offers an introduction to and thorough coverage of organic crystals, and explores the essential role they play in drug development and manufacturing. Written contributions from leading researchers and practitioners in the field, this vital resource provides the fundamental knowledge and explains the connection between pharmaceutically relevant properties and the structure of a crystal. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers a range of topics including: crystallization, molecular interactions, polymorphism, analytical methods, processing, and chemical stability. The authors clearly show how to find solutions for pharmaceutical form selection and crystallization processes. Designed to be an accessible guide, this book represents a valuable resource for improving the drug development process of small drug molecules. This important text: Includes the most important aspects of solid-state organic chemistry and its role in drug development Offers solutions for pharmaceutical form selection and crystallization processes Contains a balance between the scientific fundamental and pharmaceutical applications Presents coverage of crystallography, molecular interactions, polymorphism, analytical methods, processing, and chemical stability Written for both practicing pharmaceutical scientists, engineers, and senior undergraduate and graduate students studying pharmaceutical solid-state materials, Pharmaceutical Crystals: Science and Engineering is a reference and textbook for understanding, producing, analyzing, and designing organic crystals which is an imperative skill to master for anyone working in the field.
Winner of 2018 PROSE Award for MULTIVOLUME REFERENCE/SCIENCE This encyclopedia offers a comprehensive and easy reference to physical organic chemistry (POC) methodology and techniques. It puts POC, a classical and fundamental discipline of chemistry, into the context of modern and dynamic fields like biochemical processes, materials science, and molecular electronics. Covers basic terms and theories into organic reactions and mechanisms, molecular designs and syntheses, tools and experimental techniques, and applications and future directions Includes coverage of green chemistry and polymerization reactions Reviews different strategies for molecular design and synthesis of functional molecules Discusses computational methods, software packages, and more than 34 kinds of spectroscopies and techniques for studying structures and mechanisms Explores applications in areas from biology to materials science The Encyclopedia of Physical Organic Chemistry has won the 2018 PROSE Award for MULTIVOLUME REFERENCE/SCIENCE. The PROSE Awards recognize the best books, journals and digital content produced by professional and scholarly publishers. Submissions are reviewed by a panel of 18 judges that includes editors, academics, publishers and research librarians who evaluate each work for its contribution to professional and scholarly publishing. You can find out more at: proseawards.com Also available as an online edition for your library, for more details visit Wiley Online Library
This book focuses on the triboemission of low-energy electrons from the freshly generated surface. These electrons play the most crucial role in the chemical reactions at the tribological interface. New models and TIP (thermodymanics of irreversible processes) describe in detail the behavior of emitted electrons which lower the activation energy of the chemical reactions. This book also highlights tribocatalysis phenomena as examples of the lowering of the activation energy. A book titled Tribocatalysis has never been published before this.
A brief historical account of the background leading to the publication of the first four editions of the World Directory of Crystallographers was presented by G. Boom in his preface to the Fourth Edition, published late in 1971. That edition was produced by traditional typesetting methods from compilations of biographical data prepared by national Sub-Editors. The major effort required to produce a directory by manual methods provided the impetus to use computer techniques for the Fifth Edition. The account of the production of the first computer assisted Directory was described by S.C. Abrahams in the preface of the Fifth Edition. Computer composition, which required a machine readable data base, offered several major advantages. The choice of typeface and range of characters was flexible. Corrections and additions to the data base were rapid and, once established, it was hoped updating for future editions would be simple and inexpensive. The data base was put to other Union uses, such as preparation of mailing labels and formulation of lists of crystallographers with specified common fields of interest. The Fifth Edition of the World Directory of Crystallographers was published in June of 1977, the Sixth in May of 1981. The Subject Indexes for the Fifth and Sixth Editions were printed in 1978 and 1981 respectively, both having a limited distribution.