Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair N. Neilson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 199

Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems.
Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair H. Neilson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 388

View: 554

With contributions by numerous experts
Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair N. Neilson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 320

Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems.
Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair N. Neilson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 808

Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems.
Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair N. Neilson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 274

Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems.
Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair H. Neilson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 388

View: 694

The volumes 3/I and 3/J present a modern account of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their heterocyclic analogs in the environment. The authors are internationally well recognized scientists belonging to those working presently in the frontline of the different subfields of this interdisciplinary area of environmental science; they give an integrated thorough overview on this hot topic. Extensive cross-referencing between chapters provides the readers with an easy access to all major areas. Due to the huge amount of material the text is published in two volumes (3/I and 3/J). It is expected that both volumes will soon become a major source of information and inspiration for all researchers actively working in PAH environmental chemistry or ecology.
Computers

Managing and Mining Uncertain Data

Author: Charu C. Aggarwal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Computers

Page: 494

View: 850

Managing and Mining Uncertain Data, a survey with chapters by a variety of well known researchers in the data mining field, presents the most recent models, algorithms, and applications in the uncertain data mining field in a structured and concise way. This book is organized to make it more accessible to applications-driven practitioners for solving real problems. Also, given the lack of structurally organized information on this topic, Managing and Mining Uncertain Data provides insights which are not easily accessible elsewhere. Managing and Mining Uncertain Data is designed for a professional audience composed of researchers and practitioners in industry. This book is also suitable as a reference book for advanced-level students in computer science and engineering, as well as the ACM, IEEE, SIAM, INFORMS and AAAI Society groups.
Science

Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

Author: Garrigues

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 1264

View: 218

A compilation of some 150 refereed papers that were presented at PAH- 13 (October 1991), the first meeting in the PAH symposium series to be convened outside the US. The papers concern the chemistry, biological effects, and measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds. Following two papers by Gernot Grimmer, who received the 1991 PAH Award at the meeting for his lifetime contributions in all three of the aforementioned areas, the remaining papers are arranged within 13 sections: standard reference materials and methods; PAH transformation and degradation; molecular modeling and theory; PAH-analysis, methodology; PAH analysis in aquatic systems and geological samples; PAH analysis in emission sources and in ambient air; PAHs in coal and petroleum; metabolic activity, mutagenicity; DNA-adducts, mechanisms, characterization; DNA-binding, metabolic activation; PAH exposure, biomonitoring; Comparative metabolism of B[a]P; and bioactivation, metabolites. (Note: both CIP and Books in Print incorrectly show the title as Polynuclear....) Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Developmental toxicology

Utilization of the Zebrafish Model for Investigating Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Developmental Toxicity

Author: Anna C. Chlebowski

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Developmental toxicology

Page: 205

View: 139

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widely known and studied environmental contaminants, originating from a range of natural and anthropogenic sources. PAHs are known to occur in the environment as complex mixtures, containing both unsubstituted PAHs, as well as a range of PAH derivatives. Among the less-studied of these derivative PAH classes are nitrated PAHs (NPAHs). NPAHs are known to form from atmospheric reactions with PAHs and can be found in the environment in a variety of matrices. Many NPAHs are known to be mutagenic, in some cases more so than the corresponding unsubstituted PAH. Less is known about the toxicity of NPAHs in whole-animal systems and for non-cancer endpoints, in particular with regard to the developmental toxicity and metabolism across a wide number of NPAH compounds, in a consistent model system. One of the major challenges in studying PAHs, and related compounds, is the high hydrophobicity and low water solubility of these compounds, which can result in losses due to partitioning of the analytes out of the aqueous phase and on to the walls of the container or exposure vessel. Numerous in vitro and in vivo models utilize plastic plates as exposure vessels, including the use of polystyrene 96-well plates for developmental toxicity testing in the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We directly measured the losses which occur due to sorption to the polystyrene plates during zebrafish testing for a set of PAHs and NPAHs. Sorptive losses in some instances were greater than fifty percent, in particular for the lower of the two exposure concentrations tested. These sorptive losses decrease the concentration of chemical available to the zebrafish embryos, and therefore impact the interpretation of dose-response toxicity data. In an attempt to create a predictive model for sorptive losses, the measured sorption was modeled against the log K[subscript ow], molecular weight, and subcooled liquid solubilities of the corresponding compounds. The correlations between subcooled liquid solubility and PAH sorption was statistically significant (p
Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair N. Neilson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 693

Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems.
Medical

PAHs and Related Compounds

Author: Alasdair N. Neilson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 414

View: 328

Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems.
Medical

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Author: Ronald G. Harvey

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 396

View: 836

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, many of which have been identified as potent human carcinogens, occur widely in the environment as a result of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic matter. Major sources of emissions are wood and coal burning, automobiles, heat and power plants, and refuse burning. This volume reviews the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their active metabolites, providing up-to-date information on their chemical and physical properties, methods of synthesis, enviromental occurrence, and chemical reactions. It also surveys their biological properties, metabolism and metabolic activation, and current concepts concerning their mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The emphasis throughout is on recent findings and newer methods and techniques. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this currently active field of research, bringing together in a single volume a large amount of information previously scattered throughout the scientific literature. It may be read with profit by anyone with an interest in the chemistry and metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, environmental chemistry and chemical carcinogenesis.
Electronic books

Analysis of Complex Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Mixtures Found in Particulate Matter Air Samples from the San Diego -- Tijuana Border Region Using GCxGC-TOFMS

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Electronic books

Page: 99

View: 477

Ambient air pollution, and more specifically particulate matter (PM), is a major concern for public health, causing 5% of all cardiopulmonary deaths worldwide. Research has demonstrated that the chemical composition of particulate matter plays a role in its toxicity. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which have known carcinogenic and toxic effects, and their oxygenated derivatives, are among the organic species found in particulate matter. Meteorological factors as well as sources of emission affect the chemical composition. This leads to variability in the composition of particulate matter by geographic region and by season. The cities of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico and San Diego, California, USA are a part of the vast border region that deals with many environmental and public health concerns, one of which is air pollution. This study sought to investigate particulate matter in the region and obtain an initial fingerprint of the organic content. Specifically, the objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PAHs and related chemical contaminants using nontargeted analysis and select compounds for targeted and semi-targeted analysis, as well as identify interesting compounds for future study. Between July 2013 and February 2014, thirteen PM2.5 high-volume air samples were collected in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico using a Tisch TE-6001 PM10 High-Vol Air Sampler. Samples were extracted with acetone and hexane in a MARS Xpress microwave system and eluted through silica gel columns with solvents of increasing polarity. Twodimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) was used to characterize PAHs and related compounds in the organic content of particulate matter samples from four sampling locations in Tijuana. A non-targeted approach was utilized to identify PAHs and other compounds of interest from two initial samples. Based on these results, targeted and semi-targeted methods were employed to quantify specific compounds in eleven samples. Average total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.658 ng/m3 (coastal site) to 6.44 ng/m3 (inland site). Winter total PAH levels detected at inland sampling sites were greater than winter concentrations observed in Southern California. In addition, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and chrysene were detected at higher levels than those observed in many Southern California cities. Total oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (OPAH) concentrations averaged 0.326 ng/m3 at the coastal site and 0.938 ng/m3 at the site the furthest inland. The most prevalent OPAHs were 9,10-anthracenedione, naphthalic anhydride and 6H-benz[de]anthracen-6-one. A number of compounds not previously detected in PM were identified and quantified, including 6H-benz[de]anthracen-6-one, 4,4'- dichlorodiphenylsulfone, and podocarpa-8,11,13-trien-19-oic acid methyl ester. Further analysis is required in order to confirm trends between sites and compare levels in different seasons.
Science

Wastewater Treatment

Author: Amy J. Forsgren

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 260

View: 327

This book describes the sources of water contamination by PAHs and their transportation and fate in natural aquatic systems. It then discusses, from the analytical chemist’s view, how to determine the presence of PAHs in water and wastewater, and the changes in PAH concentration during treatment processes. The text examines the removal of PAHs using membrane bioreactors and advanced sludge processes, highlighting results from both demonstration and full-scale plants. It also examines the presence of PAHs in conventional wastewater treatment plants, especially in sludge.
Science

PAHs

Author: Peter E. T. Douben

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 478

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or polyarenes, are one of the largest and most structurally diverse class of organic molecules known. High percentages of polyarenes, representing a wide range of molecular sizes and structural types, are present in coal tars and petroleum residues. The major sources of PAHs are crude oil, coal and oil shale. The fuels produced from these fossil sources constitute the primary source of energy for the industrial nations of the world, and the petrochemicals from these raw materials are the basis of the synthetic fibre and plastics industries. PAHs are however, widespread pollutants and their impact on the environment and human health must be monitored and controlled. This book will review and assess our scientific understanding of the ecological exposure and effects PAHs have in different environments and habitats. It will accomplish this by taking the recipients of the pollution in the environment as starting points and working its way back through pathways to access what is required for our understanding of effects and rationale for control. Although this book will concentrate on ecological exposure of PAHs, the general impacts of PAHs on human populations will be touched upon. It is thought to be the first book to focus on the ecological aspects of PAHs.

Chemical Interactions of Polycyclic Organic Compounds with Coal Fly Ash and Related Solid Surfaces

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 13

View: 121

The interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with particulate surfaces (especially those of coal fly ash) have been investigated, and the influence of coal ash surface properties on the photochemical transformation of adsorbed PAHs has been studied. The overall objective of the work has been to characterize the effects of adsorption onto atmospheric particulate matter on the chemical behavior of PAHs released into the atmosphere via combustion processes. Progress is reported in the following areas of effort: (a) Major emphasis has been devoted to the interactions of PAHs with the different particulate phases that are found in heterogeneous coal ash samples. Techniques have been developed and thoroughly characterized for the fractionation of coal ashes into carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral-nonmagnetic subfractions. Heats of adsorption for pyrene on such subfractions have been measured by gas-solid chromatography, and the photoreactivity of pyrene and benz[a]anthracene on ash subfractions has been examined. Carbonaceous particles exhibit the highest affinity for vapor-phase PAHS; mineral magnetic particles usually exhibit the smallest tendency to sorb PAHs from the vapor phase. Adsorption of PAHs on carbonaceous particles suppresses, virtually completely, their tendency to undergo photochemical transformation. For coal ashes that contain few carbonaceous particles, the adsorption and photochemical transformation of PAHs tend to be dominated by the mineral nonmagnetic particles; PAHs adsorbed on these particles tend to exhibit relatively efficient phototransformation.