Science

Palaeoecology of Africa, volume 16

Author: J.A. Coetzee

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 488

View: 460

This text gives an environmental history of Africa, concentrating on 30 contributions on oceans and ocean margins, the Sahara and West Africa.
Social Science

African Paleoecology and Human Evolution

Author: Sally C. Reynolds

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page:

View: 432

Humans evolved in the dynamic landscapes of Africa under conditions of pronounced climatic, geological and environmental change during the past 7 million years. This book brings together detailed records of the paleontological and archaeological sites in Africa that provide the basic evidence for understanding the environments in which we evolved. Chapters cover specific sites, with comprehensive accounts of their geology, paleontology, paleobotany, and their ecological significance for our evolution. Other chapters provide important regional syntheses of past ecological conditions. This book is unique in merging a broad geographic scope (all of Africa) and deep time framework (the past 7 million years) in discussing the geological context and paleontological records of our evolution and that of organisms that evolved alongside our ancestors. It will offer important insights to anyone interested in human evolution, including researchers and graduate students in paleontology, archaeology, anthropology and geology.
Social Science

Kromdraai

Author: Jose Braga

Publisher: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 123

View: 248

This book is dedicated to the palaeontogical site of Kromdraai, one of the most well-known sites of the 'Cradle of Humankind', the famous UNESCO World Heritage site located in the Gauteng province (South Africa). From 1938 to 1943, Robert Broom described important hominin fossil discoveries from Kromdraai as belonging to a single individual and designated the type specimen as one of our distant relatives, called Paranthropus robustus
Paleobotany

Palaeoecology of Africa & of the Surrounding Islands & Antarctica

Author: Eduard Meine van Zinderen Bakker

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Paleobotany

Page: 256

View: 879

Vol. 8 contains the proceedings of the International Council of Scientific Unions, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Conference on Quaternary Studies held at ... Canberra ... 1972.
Nature

Mammals of Africa: Volume VI

Author: Jonathan Kingdon

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 704

View: 813

Mammals of Africa (MoA) is a series of six volumes which describes, in detail, every currently recognized species of African land mammal. This is the first time that such extensive coverage has ever been attempted, and the volumes incorporate the very latest information and detailed discussion of the morphology, distribution, biology and evolution (including reference to fossil and molecular data) of Africa's mammals. With more than 1,160 species and 16-18 orders, Africa has the greatest diversity and abundance of mammals in the world. The reasons for this and the mechanisms behind their evolution are given special attention in the series. Each volume follows the same format, with detailed profiles of every species and higher taxa. The series includes hundreds of colour illustrations and pencil drawings by Jonathan Kingdon highlighting the morphology and behaviour of the species concerned, as well as line drawings of skulls and jaws by Jonathan Kingdon and Meredith Happold. Every species also includes a detailed distribution map. Edited by Jonathan Kingdon, David Happold, Tom Butynski, Mike Hoffmann, Meredith Happold and Jan Kalina, and written by more than 350 authors, all experts in their fields, Mammals of Africa is as comprehensive a compendium of current knowledge as is possible. Extensive references alert readers to more detailed information. Volume VI, edited by Jonathan Kingdon and Michael Hoffmann, comprises a single order, currently subdivided into three suborders, containing the hippopotamuses, pigs, chevrotains, deer, Giraffe, Okapi, buffalos, spiral-horned antelopes, dwarf antelopes, duikers, grysboks, Beira, dik-diks, gazelles, Klipspringer, Oribi, reduncines, Impala, alcelaphines, horse-like antelopes, sheep and goats; the volume contains 98 species profiles.
Science

Quaternary Vegetation Dynamics

Author: Jürgen Runge

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 441

This book celebrates the relaunch of the African Pollen Database, presents state-of-the-art of modern and ancient pollen data from sub-Saharan Africa, and promotes Open Access science. Pollen grains are powerful tools for the study of past vegetation dynamics because they preserve well within sedimentary deposits and have a huge diversity in ornamentation that allows different taxa to be determined. The reconstruction of past vegetation from the examination of ancient pollen records thus can be used to characterize the nature of past landscapes (e.g. abundance of forests vs. grasslands), provide insights into changes in biodiversity, and gain empirical evidence of vegetation response to climatic change and human activity. In this, the 35th Volume of "Palaeoecology of Africa", we bring together new data and extensive synthetic reviews to provide novel insights into the relationships between human evolution, human activity, climate change and vegetation dynamics during the Quaternary, the last 2.6 million years. Current and ongoing climate and land-use change is exerting pressure on modern vegetation formations and threatening the livelihoods and wellbeing of many peoples in Africa. In this book the focus is on the Quaternary because it is during this geological period that the modern vegetation formations developed into their current configurations against a backdrop of high magnitude global climate change (glacial-interglacial cycles), human evolution, and a growing human land-use footprint. In this book the latest information is presented and collated from around the African continent to parameterize past vegetation states, identify the drivers of vegetation change, and assess the vegetation resilience to change. To achieve this research from two broad themes are covered: (i) the present is the key to the past (i.e. studies which improve our understanding of modern environments so that we can better interpret evidence from the past), and (ii) the past is the key to the future (i.e. studies which unlock information on how and why vegetation changed in the past so one can better anticipate trajectories of future change). This Open Access book will provide a strong foundation for future research exploring past ecological, environmental and climatic change within Africa and the surrounding islands. The book is organized regionally (covering western, eastern, central, and southern Africa) and it contains specialized articles focused on particular topics (such as modern pollen-vegetation relationships and fire as a driver of vegetation change), as well as regional and pan-African syntheses drawing together decades of research to assess key scientific questions (including the role of climate in driving vegetation change and the role of vegetation change in human evolution). These articles will be useful to students and teachers from high school to the highest level of university who are interested in the origins and dynamics of vegetation in Africa. Furthermore, it is also meant to provide societally relevant information that can act as an inspiration for the development of sustainable management practices for the future.
Social Science

Holocene Settlement of the Egyptian Sahara

Author: Fred Wendorf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 707

View: 978

by Fred Wendorf and Romuald Schild The Eastern Sahara is a fascinating place to study structures. These larger, more complex sites are almost prehistory. Confronted with the stark reality of a hyper always in the lower parts of large basins, most of which arid environment that receives no measurable rainfall, were formed by deflation during the Late Pleistocene lacks vegetation, and is seemingly without life, it would hyper-arid interval between about 65,000 and 13,000 seem to be an unlikely place to find a rich and complex years ago. Their location near the floor of these basins mosaic of archaeological remains documenting past was influenced primarily by one factor - water. During human presence. Despite this impression of a hostile wet phases, runoff from extensive catchment areas environment, there is widespread and abundant caused the development of large, deep, seasonal lakes, archaeological evidence. or playas, in the lowermost parts of these basins. This It is obvious that this area was not always a lifeless surface water would last for several weeks or months desert. Faunal and plant remains found in the excavations after the seasonal rains, and by digging wells after the at Holocene-age settlements, dating between 9500 and playa became dry, water could still be obtained during 5000 radiocarbon years ago, indicate that rainfall during most, if not all, of the dry season.
Nature

New Studies on Former and Recent Landscape Changes in Africa

Author: Juergen Runge

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 240

View: 537

Volume 32 (2013) of the internationally recognized and acclaimed yearbook series ‘Palaeoecology of Africa’ publishes 9 new interdisciplinary scientific papers on former and recent landscape evolution and on past environments of the African continent (e.g. climate change, vegetation dynamics and growing impact of humans on ecosystems). These papers expand horizons and interconnections to various types and methodologies of research on environmental dynamics from the Pliocene up to the present: review articles and regional case studies cover Nigeria, Cameroon, selected areas of the Congo basin, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia and South Africa. This volume also gives space to researchers from Africa to present their findings to a wider international audience. Today, by growing awareness of the worldwide impact of Global Change, it has become obvious that aside of the northern and southern hemisphere Polar region also the environmental setting in Africa was subject to considerable changes over time. Natural shifts in climate at least since the Pliocene have caused repeated and strong modification in the area dynamics of ecosystems located in lower latitudes. By a variety of so-called ‘proxies’ – researched and applied by the different authors from numerous disciplines – an attempt is made to reconstruct the evolution of landscapes over space and time. Besides such spatio-temporal oscillations in forested and savanna areas of Africa this volume of ‘Palaeoecology of Africa’ also focuses on possible relationships between environmental change and human impact, also on the perception of this phenomenon of recent ‘climate changes’ by different stakeholders. This book will be of interest to all concerned with low latitudes ecosystem changes and their respective interpretation in the framework of natural climate and vegetation change evidenced by a variety of methods that allow us to read and learn from ‘proxy data’ archives. Archaeologists, Palynologists, Palaeobotanist, Geographers, Geologists and Geomorphologists will find this edition equally useful for their work.
Nature

Arid Land Ecosystems: Volume 1

Author: R. A. Perry

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 920

View: 547

This comprehensive account of arid-land ecosystems will be of importance to university teachers and professional ecologists throughout the world.
Science

Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli: Human Evolution in Context

Author: Terry Harrison

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 602

View: 447

This volume 2 and its companion volume 1 present the results of new investigations into the geology, paleontology and paleoecology of the early hominin site of Laetoli in northern Tanzania. The site is one of the most important paleontological and paleoanthropological sites in Africa, worldrenowned for the discovery of fossils of the early hominin Australopithecus afarensis, as well as remarkable trails of its footprints. The first volume provides new evidence on the geology, geochronology, ecology, ecomorphology and taphonomy of the site. The second volume describes newly discovered fossil hominins from Laetoli, belonging to Australopithecus afarensis and Paranthropus aethiopicus, and presents detailed information on the systematics and paleobiology of the diverse associated fauna. Together, these contributions provide one of the most comprehensive accounts of a fossil hominin site, and they offer important new insights into the early stages of human evolution and its context.