Landscapes have long been viewed as ‘multifunctional’, integrating ecological, economic, sociocultural, historical, and aesthetic dimensions. Landscape science and public awareness in Europe have been progressing in leaps and bounds. The challenges involved in landscape-related issues and fields, however, are multiple and refer to landscape stewardship and protection, as well as to the development of comprehensive theoretical and methodological approaches, in tandem with public sensitization and participatory governance and in coordination with appropriate top-down planning and policy instruments. Landscape-scale approaches are fundamental to the understanding of past and present cultural evolution, and are now considered to be an appropriate spatial framework for the analysis of sustainability. Methods and tools of landscape analysis and intervention have also gone a long way since their early development in Europe and the United States. Although significant progress has been made, there remain many issues which are understudied or not investigated at all—at least in a Mediterranean context. This Special Issue addresses the application of landscape theory and practice in the Eastern Mediterranean and mainly, but not exclusively, reports on the outcomes of an international conference held in Jordan, in December 2015, with the title “Landscapes of Eastern Mediterranean: Challenges, Opportunities, Prospects and Accomplishments”. The focus of this Special Issue, landscapes of the Eastern Mediterranean region, thus constitutes a timely area of research interest, not only because these landscapes have so far been understudied, but also as a rich site of strikingly variegated, long-standing multicultural human–environmental interactions. These interactions, resting on and taking shape through millennia of continuity in tradition, have been striving to adapt to technological advances, while currently juggling with manifold and multilayered socioeconomic and climate–environmental crises.
Past Landscapes' presents theoretical and practical attempts of scholars and scientists, who were and are active within the Kiel Graduate School ?Human Development in Landscapes? (GSHDL), in order to disentangle a wide scope of research efforts on past landscapes. Landscapes are understood as products of human-environmental interaction. At the same time, they are arenas, in which societal and cultural activities as well as receptions of environments and human developments take place. Thus, environmental processes are interwoven into human constraints and advances.0This book presents theories, concepts, approaches and case studies dealing with human development in landscapes. On the one hand, it becomes evident that only an interdisciplinary approach can cover the manifold aspects of the topic. On the other hand, this also implies that the very different approaches cannot be reduced to a simplistic uniform definition of landscape. This shortcoming proves nevertheless to be an important strength. The umbrella term ?landscape? proves to be highly stimulating for a large variety of different approaches.0The first part of our book deals with a number of theories and concepts, the second part is concerned with approaches to landscapes, whereas the third part introduces case studies for human development in landscapes. As intended by the GSHDL, the reader might follow our approach to delve into the multi-faceted theories, concepts and practices on past landscapes: from events, processes and structures in environmental and produced spaces to theories, concepts and practices concerning past societies.
As the editors note, "This volume includes many searching looks at the landscape, not just to understand ourselves, but to understand the context for other peoples' lives in other times, to unravel the landscapes they created and explain the meanings embedded in them.".
Landscapes, Sources and Intellectual Projects of the West African Past outlines new directions in the historiography of West Africa. Its chapters explore new trends across regional and disciplinary fields with a focus on how political conjunctures influence source production and circulation.
"What insights can an anthropologist gain from the day-to-day use of parks? How does an economist view the supply and demand of an outdoor space? Why would an architect divide landscape into 'cultural' and 'natural' elements? Experts from around the world give their thoughts on how disciplines outside landscape architecture view the profession. Their insights link together theories from outside the area, giving constructive feedback on the lessons they gain from work in the environment and what they can contribute back to the subject. The book is an important addition to the literature on landscape architecture and provides a valuable companion to landscape theory modules for undergraduate and postgraduate students"--
Restoring Layered Landscapes brings together historians, geographers, philosophers, and interdisciplinary scholars to explore ecological restoration in landscapes with complex histories shaped by ongoing interactions between humans and nature. For many decades, ecological restoration - particularly in the United States - focused on returning degraded sites to conditions that prevailed prior to human influence. This model has been broadened in recent decades, and restoration now increasingly focuses on the recovery of ecological functions and processes rather than on returning a site to a specific historical state. Nevertheless, neither the theory nor the practice of restoration has fully come to terms with the challenges of restoring layered landscapes, where nature and culture shape one another in deep and ongoing relationships. Former military and industrial sites provide paradigmatic examples of layered landscapes. Many of these sites are not only characterized by natural ecosystems worth preserving and restoring, but also embody significant political, social, and cultural histories. This volume grapples with the challenges of restoring and interpreting such complex sites: What should we aim to restore in such places? How can restoration adequately take the legacies of human use into account? Should traces of the past be left on the landscape, and how can interpretive strategies be creatively employed to make visible the complex legacies of an open pit mine or chemical weapons manufacturing plant? Restoration aims to create new value, but not always without loss. Restoration often disrupts existing ecosystems, infrastructure, and artifacts. The chapters in this volume consider what restoration can tell us more generally about the relationship between continuity and change, and how the past can and should inform our thinking about the future. These insights, in turn, will help foster a more thoughtful approach to human-environment relations in an era of unprecedented anthropogenic global environmental change.
This book has been initiated by the workshop on Cultural heritage in changing landscapes, held during the IALE (International Association for Landscape Ecology) European Conference that started in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 200 1 and continued across the Baltic to Tartu, Estonia, in JUly. The papers presented at the workshop have been supported by invited contributions that address a wider range of the cultural heritage management issues and research interfaces required to study cultural landscapes. The book focuses on landscape interfaces. Both the ones we find out there in the landscape and the ones we face while doing research. We hope that this book helps if not to make use of these interfaces, then at least to map them and bridge some of the gaps between them. The editors wish to thank those people helping us to assemble this collection. First of all our gratitude goes to the authors who contributed to the book. We would like to thank Marc Antrop, Mats Widgren, Roland Gustavsson, Marion Pots chin, Barbel Tress, Tiina Peil, Helen Soovali and Anu Printsmann for their quick and helpful advice, opinions and comments during the different stages of editing. Helen Soovali and Anu Printsmann together with Piret Pungas - thank you for technical help.
Looking at representations of the Irish landscape in contemporary literature and the arts, this volume discusses the economic, political and environmental issues associated with it, questioning the myths behind Ireland's landscape, from the first Greek descriptions to present day post Celtic-Tiger architecture.
West African history is inseparable from the history of the Atlantic slave trade and colonialism. According to historical archaeologist François Richard, however, the dominance of this narrative not only colors the range of political discourse about Africa but also occludes many lesser-known - but equally important - experiences of those living in the region. Reluctant Landscapes is an exploration of the making and remaking of political experience and physical landscapes among rural communities in the Siin province of Senegal between the late 1500s and the onset of World War II. By recovering the histories of farmers and commoners who made up African states? demographic core in this period, Richard shows their crucial - but often overlooked - role in the making of Siin history. The book also delves into the fraught relation between the Seereer, a minority ethnic and religious group, and the Senegalese nation-state, with Siin?s perceived ?primitive? conservatism standing at odds with the country?s Islamic modernity. Through a deep engagement with oral, documentary, archaeological, and ethnographic archives, Richard?s groundbreaking study revisits the four-hundred-year history of a rural community shunted to the margins of Senegal?s national imagination.
This book presents the integrated use of magnetometry and ground-penetrating radar geophysical mapping to understand the human presence within buried archaeological landscapes. Ground-penetrating radar can be used to identify buried living surfaces, geological stratigraphy and the architectural remains of sites in three-dimensions. Magnetometry can produce images denoting differences on the composition of those materials, both anthropogenic and natural, but with more limited three-dimensional resolution. The integration of the two has a unique ability to resolve and interpret these buried materials, differentiated between the human-caused and natural layers, and place all buried features within historic landscapes. The final product of geophysical integration, along with some limited subsurface testing, produces a holistic analysis of human adaptations to, and modifications of, the ancient landscape. Examples are shown from sites in Roman Croatia and Britain, Medieval Ireland, Colonial Connecticut, and an Archaic site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. These examples from very different environments, time periods and cultural groups illustrate how the integrated geophysical methodology can interpret, on a scale approaching many hectares, the ancient landscapes within which people lived.
The conservation and management of cultural landscapes, interpreted as the result of the interrelationships among economic, social and environmental factors through time and space, emerges as essential components in the definition and application of a modern approach to sustainable development. Cultural landscapes are the result of management practices and knowledge accumulated in human history and contribute not only to the cultural heritage of the world, but also to biodiversity and aesthetic beauty, providing also multiple goods and services for the development of rural areas. However, landscapes are severely endangered not only by some effects of the socioeconomic development, but also by inappropriate policies in agriculture, forestry and nature conservation. This interdisciplinary book presents a range of different methods developed to analyse, restore and manage cultural landscapes, reporting a number of case studies from Europe and north America, but raising some questions about the need for a revision of some past orientations.
The research studies included in this Special Issue highlight the fundamental contribution of the knowledge of environmental history to conscious and efficient environment conservation and management. The long-term perspective of the dynamics that govern the human–climate ecosystem is becoming one of the main focuses of interest in biological and earth system sciences. Multidisciplinary bio-geo-archaeo investigations into the underlying processes of human impact on the landscape are crucial to envisage possible future scenarios of biosphere responses to global warming and biodiversity losses. This Special Issue seeks to engage an interdisciplinary dialog on the dynamic interactions between nature and society, focusing on long-term environmental data as an essential tool for better-informed landscape management decisions to achieve an equilibrium between conservation and sustainable resource exploitation.
This volume honors McGuire Gibson and his years of service to archaeology of Mesopotamia, Yemen, and neighboring regions. Professor Gibson spent most of his career at the University of Chicago's Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations department and the Oriental Institute. Many of his students, colleagues, and friends have contributed to this volume, reflecting Gibson's diverse interests. The volume presents new results in areas such as landscape archaeology, urbanism, the ancient languages of Mesopotamia, history of Mesopotamia, the archaeology of Iran and Yemen, prehistory, material culture, and wider archaeological topics.
Historic sites by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Subcommittee on Public Lands
The initial aim of the research from which this book arose was to place the Romano-British villa at Gorhambury near St Albans, Hertfordshire, within the context of the resources which it might have exploited and the economic organisation for which it was a focus. What resulted was a much wider history and reconstruction of the Gorhambury landscape itself. This `Study of six parishes in the St Albans area' presents an analysis and measurement of the changing landscape from the pre-medieval and medieval periods to the early modern, examining such themes as settlement, field systems, land use, and administration.
In this multi-authored book, senior practitioners and researchers offer an international overview of landscape character approaches for those working in research, policy and practice relating to landscape. Over the last three decades, European practice in landscape has moved from a narrow, if relatively straightforward, focus on natural beauty or scenery to a much broader concept of landscape character constructed through human perception, and transcending any of its individual elements. Methods, tools and techniques have been developed to give practical meaning to this idea of landscape character. The two main methods, Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) and Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC) were applied first in the United Kingdom, but other methods are in use elsewhere in Europe, and beyond, to achieve similar ends. This book explores why different approaches exist, the extent to which disciplinary or cultural specificities in different countries affect approaches to land management and landscape planning, and highlights areas for reciprocal learning and knowledge transfer. Contributors to the book focus on examples of European countries – such as Sweden, Turkey and Portugal – that have adopted and extended UK-style landscape characterisation, but also on countries with their own distinctive approaches that have developed from different conceptual roots, as in Germany, France and the Netherlands. The collection is completed by chapters looking at landscape approaches based on non-European concepts of landscape in North America, Australia and New Zealand. This book has an introductory price of £125/$205 which will last until 3 months after publication - after this time it will revert to £140/$225.
By presenting case studies from across Eastern and Western Medieval Europe, this volume aims to open up a Europe-wide debate on the variety of relations and contexts between ecclesiastical buildings and their surrounding landscapes between the 5th and 15th centuries AD.