Possibly the most impactful material in the nanotechnology arena, carbon nanotubes have spurred a tremendous amount of scientific research and development. Their superior mechanical and chemical robustness makes them easily manipulable and allows for the assembly of various types of devices, including electronic, electromechanical, opto-electronic and sensing devices. In the field of nanotube devices, however, concepts that describe the properties of conventional devices do not apply. Carbon nanotube devices behave much differently from those using traditional materials, and offer entirely new functionality. This book – designed for researchers, engineers and graduate students alike – bridges the experimental and theoretical aspects of carbon nanotube devices. It emphasizes and explains the underlying physics that govern their working principles, including applications in electronics, nanoelectromechanical systems, field emission, optoelectronics and sensing. Other topics include: electrical contacts, p-n junctions, transistors, ballistic transport, field emission, oscillators, rotational actuators, electron-phonon scattering, photoconductivity, and light emission. Many of the aspects discussed here differ significantly from those learned in books or traditional materials, and are essential for the future development of carbon nanotube technology. • Bridges experimental and theoretical aspects of carbon nanotube devices, focusing on the underlying physics that govern their working principles • Explains applications in electronics, nanoelectromechanical systems, field emission, optoelectronics and sensing. • Other topics include: electrical contacts, p-n junctions, transistors, ballistic transport, field emission, oscillators, rotational actuators, electron-phonon scattering, photoconductivity, and light emission. • Covers aspects that significantly differ from those learned in traditional materials, yet are essential for future advancement of carbon nanotube technology. * Bridges experimental and theoretical aspects of carbon nanotube devices, focusing on the underlying physics that govern their working principles * Explains applications in electronics, nanoelectromechanical systems, field emission, optoelectronics and sensing. * Other topics include: electrical contacts, p-n junctions, transistors, ballistic transport, field emission, oscillators, rotational actuators, electron-phonon scattering, photoconductivity, and light emission * Covers aspects that significantly differ from those learned in traditional materials, yet are essential for future advancement of carbon nanotube technology.
The book describes the state-of-the-art in fundamental, applied and device physics of nanotubes, including fabrication, manipulation and characterization for device applications; optics of nanotubes; transport and electromechanical devices and fundamentals of theory for applications. This information is critical to the field of nanoscience since nanotubes have the potential to become a very significant electronic material for decades to come. The book will benefit all all readers interested in the application of nanotubes, either in their theoretical foundations or in newly developed characterization tools that may enable practical device fabrication.
This book gives a survey of the physics and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and their applications in optics, electronics, chemistry and biotechnology. It focuses on the structural characterization of various carbon nanotubes, fabrication of vertically or parallel aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates or in composites, physical properties for their alignment, and applications of aligned carbon nanotubes in field emission, optical antennas, light transmission, solar cells, chemical devices, bio-devices, and many others. Major fabrication methods are illustrated in detail, particularly the most widely used PECVD growth technique on which various device integration schemes are based, followed by applications such as electrical interconnects, nanodiodes, optical antennas, and nanocoax solar cells, whereas current limitations and challenges are also be discussed to lay the foundation for future developments.
This book provides a complete overview of the field of carbon nanotube electronics. It covers materials and physical properties, synthesis and fabrication processes, devices and circuits, modeling, and finally novel applications of nanotube-based electronics. The book introduces fundamental device physics and circuit concepts of 1-D electronics. At the same time it provides specific examples of the state-of-the-art nanotube devices.
Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, and Nanostructures: Techniques and Applications offers a comprehensive review of groundbreaking research in nanofabrication technology and explores myriad applications that this technology has enabled. The book examines the historical evolution and emerging trends of nanofabrication and supplies an analytical understanding of some of the most important underlying nanofabrication technologies, with an emphasis on graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and nanowires. Featuring contributions by experts from academia and industry around the world, this book presents cutting-edge nanofabrication research in a wide range of areas. Topics include: CNT electrodynamics and signal propagation models Electronic structure calculations of a graphene–hexagonal boron nitride interface to aid the understanding of experimental devices based on these heterostructures How a laser field would modify the electronic structure and transport response of graphene, to generate bandgaps The fabrication of transparent CNT electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes Direct graphene growth on dielectric substrates, and potential applications in electronic and spintronic devices CNTs as a promising candidate for next-generation interconnect conductors CMOS–CNT integration approaches, including the promising localized heating CNT synthesis method CNTs in electrochemical and optical biosensors The synthesis of diamondoids by pulsed laser ablation plasmas generated in supercritical fluids, and possible applications The use of DNA nanostructures in lithography CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire biosensors The use of titanium oxide-B nanowires to detect explosive vapors The properties of protective layers on silver nanoparticles for ink-jet printing Nanostructured thin-film production using microreactors A one-stop reference for professionals, researchers, and graduate students working in nanofabrication, this book will also be useful for investors who want an overview of the current nanofabrication landscape.
This volume is a tribute to the career of Prof. Mildred Dresselhaus. It focuses on the optical properties and spectroscopy of single-wall carbon nanotubes. It contains chapters on diverse experimental and theoretical aspects of the field, written by internationally recognized experts. The volume serves as an important resource for researchers and students interested in carbon nanotubes.
Nanotechnology is no longer a merely social talking point and is beginning to affect the lives of everyone. Carbon nanotechnology as a major shaper of new nanotechnologies has evolved into a truly interdisciplinary field, which encompasses chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, materials science and engineering. This is a field in which a huge amount of literature has been generated within recent years, and the number of publications is still increasing every year. Carbon Nanotechnology aims to provide a timely coverage of the recent development in the field with updated reviews and remarks by world-renowned experts. Intended to be an exposition of cutting-edge research and development rather than a kind of conference proceeding, Carbon Nanotechnology will be very useful not only to experienced scientists and engineers, who wish to broaden their knowledge of the wide-ranging nanotechnology and/or to develop practical devices, but also to graduate and senior undergraduate students who look to make their mark in this field of the future. · A comprehensive treatment from materials chemistry and structure-property to practical applications · Offers an in-depth analysis of various carbon nanotechnologies from both fundamental and practical perspectives · An easily accessible assessment of the materials properties and device performances based on all of the major classes of carbon nanomaterials, including: carbon fiber; diamond; C60; and carbon nanotubes · A concise compilation of the practical applications of carbon nanotechnologies from polymer-carbon nanocomposites to sensors, electron emitters, and molecular electronics
Nanoscale Electronic Devices and Their Applications helps readers acquire a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of solids at the nanoscale level in addition to their applications including operation and properties of recent nanoscale devices. This book includes seven chapters that give an overview of electrons in solids, carbon nanotube devices and their applications, doping techniques, construction and operational details of channel-engineered MOSFETs, and spintronic devices and their applications. Structural and operational features of phase-change memory (PCM), memristor, and resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) are also discussed. In addition, some applications of these phase-change devices to logic designs have been presented. Aimed at senior undergraduate students in electrical engineering, micro-electronics engineering, physics, and device physics, this book: Covers a wide area of nanoscale devices while explaining the fundamental physics in these devices Reviews information on CNT two- and three-probe devices, spintronic devices, CNT interconnects, CNT memories, and NDR in CNT FETs Discusses spin-controlled devices and their applications, multi-material devices, and gates in addition to phase-change devices Includes rigorous mathematical derivations of the semiconductor physics Illustrates major concepts thorough discussions and various diagrams
PerspectivesIntroductionNanoscience and Nanotechnology-The DistinctionHistorical PerspectivesAdvanced MaterialsTools of NanoNature's Take on Nano and the Advent of Molecular BiologyThe Nano PerspectiveSocietal Implications of NanoIntroduction to Societal IssuesEthical ImplicationsLegal ImplicationsEnvironmental ImplicationsPublic PerceptionFuture of Nanotechnology NanotoolsCharacterization MethodsCharacterization of NanomaterialsElectron Probe MethodsScanning Probe Microscopy MethodsSpectroscopic MethodsNonradiative and Nonelectron Characterization MethodsFabrication MethodsFabrication of Nano.
Krätschmer and Huffman's revolutionary discovery of a new solid phase of carbon, solid C60, in 1990 opened the way to an entire new class of materials with physical properties so diverse that their richness has not yet been fully exploited. Moreover, as a by-product of fullerene research, carbon nanotubes were later identified, from which novel nanostructures originated that are currently fascinating materials scientists worldwide. Rivers of words have been written on both fullerenes and nanotubes, in the form of journal articles, conference proceedings and books. The present book offers, in a concise and self-contained manner, the basics of the science of these materials as well as detailed information on those aspects that have so far been better explored. Structural, electronic and dynamical properties are described as obtained from various measurements and state-of-the-art calculations. Their interrelation emerges as well as their possible dependence on, for example, preparation conditions or methods of investigation. By presenting and comparing data from different sources, experiment and theory, this book helps the reader to rapidly master the basic knowledge, to grasp important issues and critically discuss them. Ultimately, it aims to inspire him or her to find novel ways to approach still open questions. As such, this book is addressed to new researchers in the field as well as experts.
This book shows the recent advances of the applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in particular, the polymer functionalized carbon nanotubes. It also includes a comprehensive description of carbon nanotubes' preparation, properties, and characterization. Therefore, we have attempted to provide detailed information about the polymer-carbon nanotube composites. With regard to the unique structure and properties of carbon nanotubes, a series of important findings have been reported. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, including thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties, after polymer functionalization have been documented in detail. This book comprises 18 chapters. The chapters include different applications of polymer functionalization CNTs, e.g. photovoltaic, biomedical, drug delivery, gene delivery, stem cell therapy, thermal therapy, biological detection and imaging, electroanalytical, energy, supercapacitor, and gas sensor applications.
To push MOSFETs to their scaling limits and to explore devices that may complement or even replace them at molecular scale, a clear understanding of device physics at nanometer scale is necessary. Nanoscale Transistors provides a description on the recent development of theory, modeling, and simulation of nanotransistors for electrical engineers, physicists, and chemists working on nanoscale devices. Simple physical pictures and semi-analytical models, which were validated by detailed numerical simulations, are provided for both evolutionary and revolutionary nanotransistors. After basic concepts are reviewed, the text summarizes the essentials of traditional semiconductor devices, digital circuits, and systems to supply a baseline against which new devices can be assessed. A nontraditional view of the MOSFET using concepts that are valid at nanoscale is developed and then applied to nanotube FET as an example of how to extend the concepts to revolutionary nanotransistors. This practical guide then explore the limits of devices by discussing conduction in single molecules
Since their discovery more than a decade ago, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have held scientists and engineers in captive fascination, seated on the verge of enormous breakthroughs in areas such as medicine, electronics, and materials science, to name but a few. Taking a broad look at CNTs and the tools used to study them, Carbon Nanotubes: Properties and Applications comprises the efforts of leading nanotube researchers led by Michael O’Connell, protégé of the late father of nanotechnology, Richard Smalley. Each chapter is a self-contained treatise on various aspects of CNT synthesis, characterization, modification, and applications. The book opens with a general introduction to the basic characteristics and the history of CNTs, followed by discussions on synthesis methods and the growth of “peapod” structures. Coverage then moves to electronic properties and band structures of single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs), magnetic properties, Raman spectroscopy of electronic and chemical behavior, and electromechanical properties and applications in NEMS (nanoelectromechanical systems). Turning to applications, the final sections of the book explore mechanical properties of SWNTs spun into fibers, sidewall functionalization in composites, and using SWNTs as tips for scanning probe microscopes. Taking a fresh look at this burgeoning field, Carbon Nanotubes: Properties and Applications points the way toward making CNTs commercially viable.
The unique electronic band structure of graphene gives rise to remarkable properties when in contact with a superconducting electrode. In this thesis two main aspects of these junctions are analyzed: the induced superconducting proximity effect and the non-local transport properties in multi-terminal devices. For this purpose specific models are developed and studied using Green function techniques, which allow us to take into account the detailed microscopic structure of the graphene-superconductor interface. It is shown that these junctions are characterized by the appearance of bound states at subgap energies which are localized at the interface region. Furthermore it is shown that graphene-supercondutor-graphene junctions can be used to favor the splitting of Cooper pairs for the generation of non-locally entangled electron pairs. Finally, using similar techniques the thesis analyzes the transport properties of carbon nanotube devices coupled with superconducting electrodes and in graphene superlattices.
This book disseminates the current knowledge of semiconductor physics and its applications across the scientific community. It is based on a biennial workshop that provides the participating research groups with a stimulating platform for interaction and collaboration with colleagues from the same scientific community. The book discusses the latest developments in the field of III-nitrides; materials & devices, compound semiconductors, VLSI technology, optoelectronics, sensors, photovoltaics, crystal growth, epitaxy and characterization, graphene and other 2D materials and organic semiconductors.