When this book was published in 2006, it had been just over ten years since the first planet outside our solar system was detected. Since then, much work has focused on understanding how extrasolar planets may form, and discovering the frequency of potentially habitable Earth-like planets. This volume addresses fundamental questions concerning the formation of planetary systems in general, and of our solar system in particular. Drawing from advances in observational, experimental and theoretical research, it summarises our understanding of the planet formation processes, and addresses major open questions and research issues. Chapters are written by leading experts in the field of planet formation and extrasolar planet studies. The book is based on a meeting held at Ringberg Castle in Bavaria, where experts gathered together to present and exchange their ideas and findings. It is a comprehensive resource for graduate students and researchers, and is written to be accessible to newcomers to the field.
Introducing astrochemistry to a wide audience, this book describes how molecules formed in chemical reactions occur in a range of environments in interstellar and circumstellar space, from shortly after the Big Bang up to the present epoch. Stressing that chemistry in these environments needs to be ôdrivenö, it helps identify these drivers and the various chemical networks that operate giving rise to signature molecules that enable the physics of the region to be better understood. The book emphasises, in a non-mathematical way, the chemistry of the Milky Way Galaxy and its planet-forming regions, describes how other galaxies may have rather different chemistries and shows how chemistry was important even in the Early Universe when most of the elements had yet to be formed. This book will appeal to anyone with a general interest in chemistry, from students to professional scientists working in interdisciplinary areas and non-scientists fascinated by the evolving and exciting story of chemistry in the cosmos.
The discovery of thousands of exoplanets in recent decades has revealed a remarkable diversity of planetary system architectures, including entire classes of planets for which there is no solar system analog. In particular, the Kepler mission has shown that planets intermediate in size between Earth and Neptune with orbital periods less than 100 days are abundant in our galaxy. Concurrently, spacecraft missions to small primitive bodies in our solar system have yielded valuable insights into conditions in the early solar system. This thesis addresses questions in planet formation theory arising from both sets of observations. We begin with an investigation into the observed diversity of super-Earth bulk densities, which range from being consistent with a terrestrial composition to requiring an extended hydrogen-helium (H/He) envelope comprising several percent of the planet's mass. Giant impacts are expected to play a role in the formation of these worlds. We examine the thermal consequences of such an impact, and find that atmospheric loss from these effects can significantly exceed that caused by the previously considered process of mechanical shocks for H/He atmospheres. Specifically, the energy released can produce a period of sustained, rapid mass loss through a Parker wind, partly or completely eroding the envelope. The degree of loss depends on planetary properties and the stochastic details of the impact, making giant impacts an attractive explanation for the observed diversity of super-Earth compositions. The final assembly of the terrestrial planets in our solar system likely also concluded with a period of giant impacts. We explore the significance of post-impact thermal losses for terrestrial planet atmospheres in different evolutionary states, finding that H/He envelopes are unlikely to survive the giant impact phase, but that secondary, outgassed envelopes with higher mean molecular weights may be retained. Atmospheric constituents with high mean molecular weights may be lost, however, if they are mixed into a predominantly H/He envelope. Next, this thesis examines magnetic measurements of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P) and their implications for the early solar system environment. Specifically, the remanent magnetization of solar system bodies reflects their accretion mechanism, the space environment in which they formed, and their subsequent geological evolution. We show that the Rosetta magnetometry requires very low bulk magnetizations of cometary material on spatial scales >/=10 cm. If 67P formed during the lifetime of the solar nebula and has not undergone significant subsequent alteration, this low magnetization is inconsistent with its formation from the gentle gravitational collapse of a cloud of millimeter-sized pebbles in a background magnetic field >/~3 [mu]T. This constraint is compatible with theories of magnetically driven evolution of protoplanetary disks. Lastly, this thesis presents the first attempt to determine an exoplanet's oblateness and obliquity through the use of changes in the transit depth caused by the spin precession of an oblate planet. Determination of these quantities would provide insights into a planet's internal structure and formation history. Using Kepler photometry, we examine the brown dwarf Kepler-39b and the warm Saturn Kepler-427b. We do not usefully constrain the oblateness of Kepler-39b, but we find transit depth variations for Kepler-427b at 90% significance consistent with a precession period of 5.5 years and an oblateness comparable to solar system gas giants.
Science by International Astronomical Union. Colloquium
Author: International Astronomical Union. Colloquium
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Recent advances in computational power are now enabling scientists to consider problems of population dynamics at an advanced level. Scientists from 21 countries convened for the colloquium 'Dynamics of Populations of Planetary Systems', sponsored by the International Astronomical Union, in Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). This proceedings volume reviews current understanding of the field, and is a valuable resource for professional astronomers and planetary scientists.
This contributed monograph is the first work to present the latest results and findings on the new topic and hot field of planetary exploration and sciences, e.g., lunar surface iron content and mare orientale basalts, Earth’s gravity field, Martian radar exploration, crater recognition, ionosphere and astrobiology, Comet ionosphere, exoplanetary atmospheres and planet formation in binaries. By providing detailed theory and examples, this book helps readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the field. In addition, it offers a special section on next-generation planetary exploration, which opens a new landscape for future exploration plans and missions. Prof. Shuanggen Jin works at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Dr. Nader Haghighipour works at the University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA. Prof. Wing-Huen Ip works at the National Central University, Taiwan.
'Protostars and Planets V' builds on the latest results from recent advances in ground and space-based astronomy and in numerical computing techniques to offer the most detailed and up-to-date picture of star and planet formation - including the formation and early evolution of our own solar system.
If you go to Mars or any other planet in the solar system, you cannot find a single rock that has exactly the same composition as what's found here on Earth. Earth's rocks are unique because of the different combinations of minerals. This science book will touch on both composition and formation of rocks. Have fun reading!
In 1988, in an article on the analysis of the measurements of the variations in the radial velocities of a number of stars, Campbell, Walker, and Yang reported an - teresting phenomenon;the radial velocity variations of Cephei seemed to suggest the existence of a Jupiter-like planet around this star. This was a very exciting and, at the same time, very surprising discovery. It was exciting because if true, it would have marked the detection of the ?rst planet outside of our solar system. It was surprising because the planet-hosting star is the primary of a binary system with a separation less than 19 AU, a distance comparable to the planetary distances in our solar system. The moderatelyclose orbit of the stellar companionof Cephei raised questions about the reality of its planet. The skepticism over the interpretation of the results (which was primarily based on the idea that binary star systems with small sepa- tions would not be favorable places for planet formation) became so strong that in a subsequent paper in 1992, Walker and his colleagues suggested that the planet in the Cephei binary might not be real, and the variations in the radial velocity of this star might have been due to its chromospheric activities.
Research on extrasolar planets is one of the most exciting fields of activity in astrophysics. In a decade only, a huge step forward has been made from the early speculations on the existence of planets orbiting "other stars" to the first discoveries and to the characterization of extrasolar planets. This breakthrough is the result of a growing interest of a large community of researchers as well as the development of a wide range of new observational techniques and facilities. Based on their lectures given at the 31st Saas-Fee Advanced Course, Andreas Quirrenbach, Tristan Guillot and Pat Cassen have written up up-to-date comprehensive lecture notes on the "Detection and Characterization of Extrasolar Planets", "Physics of Substellar Objects Interiors, Atmospheres, Evolution" and "Protostellar Disks and Planet Formation". This book will serve graduate students, lecturers and scientists entering the field of extrasolar planets as detailed and comprehensive introduction.
Representatives of several scientific communities, such as planetary scientists, astronomers, space physicists, chemists and astrobiologists have met with the aim to review the knowledge on four major themes: (1) the study of the formation and evolution processes of the outer planets and their satellites, beginning with the formation of compounds and planetesimals in the solar nebula, and the subsequent evolution of the interiors of the outer planets, (2) a comparative study of the atmospheres of the outer planets and Titan, (3) the study of the planetary magnetospheres and their interactions with the solar wind, and (4) the formation and properties of satellites and rings, including their interiors, surfaces, and their interaction with the solar wind and the magnetospheres of the outer planets. Beyond these topics, the implications for the prebiotic chemical evolution on Europa and Titan are reviewed. At the time of publication, the study of the outer planets is particularly motivated by the fact that the Saturn system is being investigated by the Cassini-Huygens mission.