In May 1998 a hundred renowned scientists from 20 different countries met at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie to communicate their latest results and ideas in astrophysical and space plasma, as a follow-up to previous similar meetings which were held in Varenna, Abastumai, Potsdam, Toki and Guaruja. The main papers emerging from this meeting are collected in this volume. They deal with fundamental plasma phenomena, particle and radiation processes in astrophysics and space physics as the origin of magnetic activity, the basic mechanisms of particle acceleration and plasma heating common to plasma in galaxies and at the sun as well as in planetary magnetospheres. New observational results from YOHKOH, SOHO and other missions are presented. Using these, the basic physical processes leading to coronal heating and solar/stellar wind acceleration are discussed. Other topics are the microphysics of shock waves and transport phenomena in collisionless plasmas and the physics of thin plasma boundaries. The volume also treats the ionic composition of plasma and dust in the Universe and their observability in the solar system. A CD-ROM is attached which adds a valuable multimedia component, illuminating results of observations, theory and simulations. Everyone interested in astrophysical plasmas, its radiation and charged particle aspects, and advanced or even beginning students will find references to nearly all modern aspects of plasma astrophysics and space physics as well as an overview of current research results.
This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The level of the book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. The book will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as to advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.
Most of the visible matter in the universe exists in the plasma state. Plasmas are of major importance for space physics, solar physics, and astrophysics. On Earth they are essential for magnetic controlled thermonuclear fusion. This textbook collects lecture notes from a one-semester course taught at the K.U. Leuven to advanced undergraduate students in applied mathematics and physics. A particular strength of this book is that it provides a low threshold introduction to plasmas with an emphasis on first principles and fundamental concepts and properties. The discussion of plasma models is to a large extent limited to Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with its merits and limitations clearly explained. MHD provides the students on their first encounter with plasmas, with a powerful plasma model that they can link to familiar classic fluid dynamics. The solar wind is studied as an example of hydrodynamics and MHD at work in solar physics and astrophysics.
The volume illustrates the State of the art and new directions in plasma physics, space physics, and astrophysics. It covers several hot topics of interdisciplinary interest where progress is made by the use of joint expertise. It summarizes an unusually lively symposium that has gathered world experts with a broad spectrum of research interests. Interdisciplinary meetings at the border between plasma physics and astrophysics are becoming increasingly important. In the recent past, several proceedings volumes have been devoted to astrophysical plasmas. This volume has the unique feature of being professional but not specialized, because it covers an unusually broad spectrum of topics under the common theme of the study of complex and collective phenomena in macroscopic systems, from the scale of laboratory plasma experiments to the scale of the universe. Included are: - basic plasma processes - space plasmas, planetary plasmas, and the heliosphere - solar and stellar plasmas - plasmas around compact objects - plasmas in galaxies - plasmas in clusters of galaxies - cosmological plasmas - testing plasma astrophysics in the laboratory
This special issue of the international journal of cosmic physics, Astrophysics and Space Science, contains invited contributions delivered at the Second IEEE International Workshop on Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology, held from 10 to 12 May 1993 in Princeton, New Jersey. The Workshop was sponsored by the NSF Division of Atmospheric Sciences, NASA Headquarters, Space Physics Division, and the Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It was the purpose of the Workshop to update topics in Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology presented at the First IEEE International Workshop on Plasma Cosmology, La Jolla, California, 20-22 February 1989, and to again bring together observers and theorists to discuss the related links between plasma theory and observation. Another goal of the Workshop and these proceedings was to highlight the Centennial Celebration (1896-1996) of the founding of Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology and several papers are devoted to the history of this field of science.
This book contains a broad spectrum of plasma physics areas, from magnetic confinement (tokamaks) to spectroscopy in plasmas. The invited papers of the LAWPP present mini-courses for graduate students and review papers in each area, also updating the new ideas in the field.
As a star in the universe, the Sun is constantly releas- cover a wide range of time and spatial scales, making ?? ing energy into space, as much as ?. ? ?? erg/s. Tis observations in the solar-terrestrial environment c- energy emission basically consists of three modes. Te plicated and the understanding of processes di?cult. ?rst mode of solar energy is the so-called blackbody ra- In the early days, the phenomena in each plasma diation, commonly known as sunlight, and the second region were studied separately, but with the progress mode of solar electromagnetic emission, such as X rays of research, we realized the importance of treating and UV radiation, is mostly absorbed above the Earth’s the whole chain of processes as an entity because of stratosphere. Te third mode of solar energy emission is strong interactions between various regions within in the form of particles having a wide range of energies the solar-terrestrial system. On the basis of extensive from less than ? keV to more than ? GeV. It is convenient satellite observations and computer simulations over to group these particles into lower-energy particles and thepasttwo decades, it hasbecomepossibleto analyze higher-energy particles, which are referred to as the so- speci?cally the close coupling of di?erent regions in the lar wind and solar cosmic rays, respectively. solar-terrestrial environment.
This textbook begins with a description of the Earth's plasma environment, followed by the derivation of single particle motions in electromagnetic fields, with applications to the Earth's magnetosphere. Also discussed are the origin and effects of collisions and conductivities, formation of the ionosphere, magnetospheric convection and dynamics, and solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.The second half of the book presents a more theoretical foundation of plasma physics, starting with kinetic theory. Introducing moments of distribution function permits the derivation of the fluid equations, followed by an analysis of fluid boundaries, with the Earth's magnetopause and bow shock as examples, and finally, fluid and kinetic theory are applied to derive the relevant wave modes in a plasma.This revised edition seamlessly integrates new sections on magnetopause reconstruction, as well as instability theory and thermal fluctuations based on new developments in space physics. Applications such as the important problems of collisionless reconnection and collisionless shocks are covered, and some problems have also been included at the end of each chapter./a
“Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics” is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits researchers in related fields by providing an overview that currently does not exist. For numerous interesting and challenging space physics and astrophysics problems, there is a need to describe the “long-term” behavior of systems governed by macroscopic laws and microscopic randomness. A random event has an outcome that is uncertain and unpredictable, yet the collective behavior of a system can be governed by well defined mathematical and physical principles. Examples of physical problems include the behavior of gases in the presence of microscopic inter-particle collisions, the evolution of a gas of charged protons and electrons (a plasma), the collective propagation of solar energetic particles or cosmic rays in a magnetically turbulent medium, the collective behavior of dust in an accretion disk subject to coagulation and destruction, the evolution of low-frequency magnetic field turbulence in the inhomogeneous solar wind, or the transport of photos in a partially ionized interstellar medium. This book provides graduate students with a unified introduction to the physics of collective phenomena or transport processes for gases (charged and uncharged), fields, and photons in a space physics or astrophysics context.
This textbook is intended as an introduction to the physics of solar and stellar coronae, emphasizing kinetic plasma processes. It is addressed to observational astronomers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates without a ba- ground in plasma physics. Coronal physics is today a vast field with many different aims and goals. So- ing out the really important aspects of an observed phenomenon and using the physics best suited for the case is a formidable problem. There are already several excellent books, oriented toward the interests of astrophysicists, that deal with the magnetohydrodynamics of stellar atmospheres, radiation transport, and radiation theory. In kinetic processes, the different particle velocities play an important role. This is the case when particle collisions can be neglected, for example in very brief phenomena – such as one period of a high-frequency wave – or in effects produced by energetic particles with very long collision times. Some of the most persistent problems of solar physics, like coronal heating, shock waves, flare energy release, and particle acceleration, are likely to be at least partially related to such p- cesses. Study of the Sun is not regarded here as an end in itself, but as the source of information for more general stellar applications. Our understanding of stellar processes relies heavily, in turn, on our understanding of solar processes. Thus an introduction to what is happening in hot, dilute coronae necessarily starts with the plasma physics of our nearest star.
This two-part book is devoted to classic fundamentals and current practices and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. This second part discusses the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas in the solar system, single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks and their coronae. More than 25% of the text is updated from the first edition, included the additions of new figures, equations and entire sections on topics such as topological triggers for solar flares and the magnetospheric physics problem. This book is aimed at professional researchers in astrophysics, but it will also be useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, applied physics and mathematics, especially those seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.
Solar and space physics is the study of solar system phenomena that occur in the plasma state. Examples include sunspots, the solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, radiation belts, and the aurora. While each is a distinct phenomenon, there are commonalities among them. To help define and systematize these universal aspects of the field of space physics, the National Research Council was asked by NASAâ€™s Office of Space Science to provide a scientific assessment and strategy for the study of magnetized plasmas in the solar system. This report presents that assessment. It covers a number of important research goals for solar and space physics. The report is complementary to the NRC report, The Sun to the Earthâ€"and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy for Solar and Space Physics, which presents priorities and strategies for future program activities.
by John-von-Neumann-Institut für Computing (Jülich)
Today many scientists recognize plasma as the key element to understanding new observations in near-Earth, interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space; in stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, and throughout the observable universe. Physics of the Plasma Universe, 2nd Edition is an update of observations made across the entire cosmic electromagnetic spectrum over the two decades since the publication of the first edition. It addresses paradigm changing discoveries made by telescopes, planetary probes, satellites, and radio and space telescopes. The contents are the result of the author's 37 years research at Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This book covers topics such as the large-scale structure and the filamentary universe; the formation of magnetic fields and galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars, the origin and abundance of light elements, star formation and the evolution of solar systems, and cosmic rays. Chapters 8 and 9 are based on the research of Professor Gerrit Verschuur, and reinvestigation of the manifestation of interstellar neutral hydrogen filaments from radio astronomical observations are given. Using data from the Green Bank 100-m telescope (GBT) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), detailed information is presented for a non-cosmological origin for the cosmic microwave background quadruple moment. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmic plasmas and space science. The supercomputer and experimental work was carried out within university, National laboratory, Department of Energy, and supporting NASA facilities.
The sun is the source of energy for life on earth and is the strongest modulator of the human physical environment. In fact, the Sunâ€™s influence extends throughout the solar system, both through photons, which provide heat, light, and ionization, and through the continuous outflow of a magnetized, supersonic ionized gas known as the solar wind. While the accomplishments of the past decade have answered important questions about the physics of the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies, they have also highlighted other questions, some of which are long-standing and fundamental. The Sun to the Earthâ€"and Beyond organizes these questions in terms of five challenges that are expected to be the focus of scientific investigations in solar and space physics during the coming decade and beyond.