Written to support an intensive short course on the subject. The material is presented as a subset of electronic warfare and is concerned primarily with systems which generate and radiate signals to interfere with hostile radar systems. Chapters deal with search and track radar range and angle count
Electronic counter-countermeasures by Fernando Mendoza
An introduction for readers with a general technical background to the design and operation of active electronic countermeasure jamming systems intended to negate the effectiveness of radar systems used by the bad guys. Presents both technical and practical aspects of the hardware and software neede
This text provides students, engineers, and officers with a solid foundation for understanding electronic countermeasures. It defines common terms and principles used in the fields of radar and electronic warfare and describes the response of radar systems to electronic countermeasures. In-depth analyses of the effects that various electronic countermeasure emissions have on classes of radar systems follows. Mathematical models are used to describe these effects, although minimal mathematical sophistication is required.
This updated 2004 Edition of the popular International Electronic Countermeasures Handbook contains new and revised entries for defense electronics systems from all nations, including Russian, Eastern European, and Chinese electronic-warfare, electronic-intelligence-gathering, and guided-weapon systems. Packed with more system technical data, photographs, and operational details than ever, the new edition is a must-have resource for military and industry professionals who are concerned with defense electronics in the modern world. The book also describes known threats, providing details of missiles which can be launched from static and mobile ground-based sites, from ships, or from aircraft. Moreover, it presents comprehensive information on the status, parameters, deployment, and manufacturer of each system. This invaluable handbook includes every important class of military surveillance and electronic intelligence system for ESM (electronic support measures); SIGINT (signals intelligence); COMINT (communications intelligence); and DF (direction finding) systems.
Electronic countermeasures support for the air war against North Vietnam included stand-off jamming, Wild Weasel operations, the use of self-protection pods, and the employment of chaff. The use of rudimentary counter-measures began during World War II and continued in the Korean conflict. Despite this experience, and an on-going program of research and development, the U.S. Air Force was hard-pressed to neutralize North Vietnams radar-controlled defenses, but did prevail and successfully delivered punishing blows during Linebacker II in December 1972. Closely related to the countermeasures effort was the use of the specially equipped aircraft of the Big Eye (later redesignated College Eye) task force. This unit gradually ac-the skill and equipment that enabled it effectively to direct friendly fighters against MIG interceptors. In 1972, however, College Eye yielded some of its earlier responsibilities to other control agencies. Electronic countermeasures is but one aspect of the broad subject of electronic warfare, which was waged in all its complexity throughout Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, in choosing to deal with this topic, the Office of Air Force History faced a difficult security problem, for key material is so closely held that its inclusion might result in a history to which the average Air Force officer would not have access. As a result, this special intelligence was not used. Instead, various agencies involved in electronic countermeasures, having access to material not available to the historian, were invited to comment on a draft of the monograph, to ensure an essentially correct account. Topics covered include: Wild Weasel, Linebacker I and II, B-52, Rivet Top, Project Vampyrus, Big Eye Aircraft, Rolling Thunder, Fan Song Radar, EC-121D, College Eye, F-105F, Hunter-Killer Team, Lockheed Constellation, Iron Hand, College Eye History, ADC Big Eye / College Eye Report, Project CHECO, the F-111 in Southeast Asia, Project Corona Harvest Special Report, Ryan's Raiders, Missiles and Guided Weapons in Southeast Asia. Unlike the broader subject of electronic warfare, which originated with interceptions of radio traffic during World War I, electronic countermeasures began with the appearance of radar-directed air defenses in World War II. The first systematic use of electronic countermeasures occurred when British night bombers employed various devices to blind German radar and disrupt communications between defending pilots and ground controllers. U. S. Army Air Forces also conducted wartime countermeasures operations, and during the Korean fighting the U. S. Air Force used equipment and techniques developed for World War II. In the years that followed, the United States .sought to keep pace with improvements in radar by devising new countermeasures, especially for the strategic bomber force, though for tactical aircraft as well. The Vietnam war tested the recent developments in electronic countermeasures. At first, radar-controlled surface-to-air missiles and antiaircraft guns had the advantage. The Air Force, however, perfected a countermeasures pod for fighter-bombers, and fitted out and armed aircraft for the express purpose of locating and destroying missile sites. These endeavors, complemented by long-range jamming and by countermeasures aircraft from the other services, succeeded in restoring a balance favorable to the offense. The deadly struggle continued throughout the war. The North Vietnamese adjusted their radars and electronic techniques to neutralize American countermeasures, and the Americans reacted to the changing threat. The countermeasures effort reached its climax in Linebacker II, the B-52 attacks of December 1972 against the Hanoi-Haiphong region. The entire wartime experience was compressed into a few days, as each side sought to overcome the electronic tactics employed by the other.
The report summarizes a research project related to multi-function monopulse radar used in low-azimuth target tracking applications, with emphasis on electronic counter countermeasures including sidelobe & main-beam nulling of jamming signals. The research was carried out using a combination of simulated & real experimental data. Work described in the report includes: processing & analysis of data from trials with the Experimental Array Radar System (EARS) at a testing site along the Ottawa river in 1993; computer simulation studies of sidelobe cancellation under various noise & propagation conditions; and coding & testing a complex software package for simulating a possible two-dimensional phased array configuration for a multi-function radar system. Source listings of programs & subroutines are appended.
Electronic countermeasures (ECM) and Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM) is a basic introductory course into the techniques used to counter radar and electro-optical equipment. This course begins with an introduction to electronic warfare and jamming techniques, and ends with discussions on countering those jamming techniques. This course builds on the material presented in the Radar and the Electro-Optics Courses.
A non-technical approach to the history and use of electronic warfare devices, from the earliest uses of radar and electronic beacons during World War II to the current electronic countermeasures of the 1960s and 1970s
This book presents a collection of authoritative accounts of the evolution and application of Royal Naval shipborne radars during World War 2 in the fields of weapon control, weapon direction, action information and fighter direction. Accounts are also presented of the successful pioneering activities at the Admiralty Signal Establishment in the fields of counter-measures against various enemy electronic systems in active operations, and also of high-frequency direction-finding, ashore and afloat, which, in conjunction with radar, contributed substantially to winning the Battle of the Atlantic.
The Army is acquiring a new, state-of-the-art radar countermeasures system--called the Suite of Integrated Radio Frequency Countermeasures to help helicopters and other aircraft identify, track, and defeat radar-guided missiles in complex electronic environments where many radar systems could be operating simultaneously. The Army has identified software and hardware modification needed for its new radar countermeasures system. The Army expects that future tests will enable it to determine whether the modified software performs as required before the planned low-rate initial production decision in early 2002. However, the testing of the modified hardware is not scheduled for completion until September 2002. By deferring low-rate initial production decision, the Army would reduce the risk of incurring anticipated costs to retrofit articles if the system does not work as expected.