Truly worldwide in its coverage, this English version of the 4th edition of the RGG, makes this gold standard of encyclopedias accessible to the English-speaking world. Taking into account the latest research developments, it offers a wide-ranging and multi-denominational approach to all aspects of the study of religion and theology.
More than a generation after the rise of women's history alongside the feminist movement, it is still difficult, observes Catherine Brekus, to locate women in histories of American religion. In this collection of 12 essays, contributors explore how considering the religious history of American women can transform our dominant historical narratives. Covering a variety of topics--including Mormonism, the women's rights movement, Judaism, witchcraft trials, the civil rights movement, Catholicism, everyday religious life, Puritanism, African American women's activism, and the Enlightenment--the volume enhances our understanding of both religious history and women's history. Taken together, these essays sound the call for a new, more inclusive history.
History is one of the most important cultural tools to make sense of one’s situation, to establish identity, define otherness, and explain change. This is the first systematic scholarly study that analyses the complex relationship between history and religion, taking into account religious groups both as producers of historical narratives as well as distinct topics of historiography. Coming from different disciplines, the authors of this volume ask under which conditions and with what consequences religions are historicised. How do religious groups employ historical narratives in the construction of their identities? What are the biases and elisions of current analytical and descriptive frames in the History of Religion? The volume aims at initiating a comparative historiography of religion and combines disciplinary competences of Religious Studies and the History of Religion, Confessional Theologies, History, History of Science, and Literary Studies. By applying literary comparison and historical contextualization to those texts that have been used as central documents for histories of individual religions, their historiographic themes, tools and strategies are analysed. The comparative approach addresses circum-Mediterranean and European as well as Asian religious traditions from the first millennium BCE to the present and deals with topics such as the origins of religious historiography, the practices of writing and the transformation of narratives.
The Past, Present and Future of Theology of Interreligious Dialogue brings together several of the most widely regarded specialists who have contributed to theological reflection on religious diversity and interreligious encounter. The chapters are united by the consistent theme of the obligation to engage with the challenges that emerge from the tension between the doctrinal tradition(s) of Christianity and the need to reconsider them in light of and in response to the fact of religious otherness. As a whole, these reflections are motivated by the desire to bring together a significant selection of different theological approaches that have been developed and appropriated in order to engage with religious difference in the past and present, as well as to suggest possibilities for the future. This confluence of perspectives reveals the complexity of theological reflection on religious diversity, and gives some indication of future challenges that must be acknowledged, and perhaps successfully met, in the ongoing attempt to address a universal reality in light of traditional doctrinal particularities and cultural concerns.
Alvin Toffler once coined the term future shockwhen people are overwhelmed by the future. Past Shock suggests that events from thousands of years ago strongly impact humanity today. It reveals why religion was created, what organized religion wont tell you, the reality of the slave chip programming that we all have, what really happened in the Garden of Eden, what the Tower of Babel was and why we were stopped from building it, how we were conditioned by gods to remain spiritually ignorant, and much more. Exposes the pretender godsadvanced beings who were not divine, but had advanced knowledge of scientific principles, including genetic engineering. Our advanced science of today has begun to unravel their secrets. Learn how to overcome the slave chip conditioning and begin living life as it was meant to be, as a spiritually fulfilled being.
A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections is a famous publication written in 1746 by Jonathan Edwards describing his philosophy about the process of Christian conversion. Edwards wrote the Treatise to explain how true religious conversion to Christianity occurs. Edwards describes how emotion and intellect both play a role, but "converting grace" is what causes Christians to "awaken" to see that forgiveness is available to all who have faith that Jesus' sacrifice atones for all sins. This salvation is not possible through believers' imperfect good works which are simply evidence of faith, only through Christ's sacrifice which is free to all. Edwards describes the importance of testing new faith and discerning whether it is legitimate. He lays out twelve tests of true conversion, including ways of measuring allegedly fruitful works.
This study provides a radical reassessment of the English Reformation. No one in eighteenth-century England thought that they were living during ‘the Enlightenment’; instead, they saw themselves as facing the religious, intellectual and political problems unleashed by the Reformation, which began in the sixteenth century. Moreover, they faced those problems in the aftermath of two bloody seventeenth-century political and religious revolutions. This book examines how the eighteenth-century English debated the causes and consequences of those revolutions and the thing they thought had caused them, the Reformation. It draws on a wide array of manuscript sources to show how authors crafted and pitched their works.
Todays modern technology and scientific knowledge contradicts all religious dogma created in ancient times by ignorant and superstitious people who had just learned to write. Modern science can test the strength of ones faith and it can make him a skeptic, causing him to discard the religious beliefs of his family for generations past. Deep religious experiences (or self-induced delusions) can be explained by physical, psychological, biological and medical sciences today. Evil or Sin is the result of social and mental conditions and can be corrected with education and medication today and without the help of an imaginary God. To quote Mark Twain Faith is to believe in what you know for sure is not true. The GOD Dilemma is an unscientific investigation to justify believing in religion today and in particular the Christian faith. It argues that scientific and logical discussions about religion and the existence of God are futile; however, we cannot stop thinking about it. Humans are (maybe) born with a faith in Gods existence and with a conscience that tells them which is morally and ethically right and which is not. Author Thomas used to believe in religion, God, and Christianity through his teenage years, but even if he learned to ignore it during his 50 adult years, he never consciously discarded his Christian faith. He now shares his investigations and attempts to believe in Jesus Christ once again, despite todays knowledge of the universe and evolution and by ignoring the sanctimonious behavior of fundamentalist US Christians. In the international scene, Thomas believes that the US wars since WWII cannot be justified by the life and the teachings of Jesus Christ. There is an underlying moral claim by fundamentalist Christian Americans that its actions are justified by Jesus and Christianity. The new phenomenon called Christian Zionism which requires the removal of Palestinians from their homeland to create and expand Israel to enable the second coming of Christ, categorically contradicts the teachings of Jesus in the four Gospels. Zionism is based on the Old Testament Bible (OTB) and Revelations in the New Testament both of which are scientifically ridiculous. The OTB is also historically questionable (about a God interacting with his only chosen people in Middle East) and morally criminal (God sponsored and assisted armed robbery and genocide to create Israel ancient and modern) by todays legal and ethical standards. Why has the life and teachings of Jesus Christ not produced universal love and non-violence among Christians? Why are American Christians the most active supporters of (or not speaking out against) the wars, bombing and destruction by the USA since WWII? Are Ashkenazi European Jews really the descendants of Semitic slaves from Egypt? What were the reasons for anti-Semitism and the Holocaust in Christian Europe of the past? Why is the European Union and the US punishing the Palestinians for the Holocaust crimes in Europe? Can Gods orders in the Bible be legally used by the United Nations to recreate Israel again in the 20th century after 3000 years by getting rid of Palestinians? The book seeks to inform and provoke critical thinking of the readers through this investigation into religion and God and, in particular, the violent, intolerant and self-righteous behavior of Christians for centuries past and even in todays enlightened age using the source of the Christian religion the Bible.
A collection of original essays exploring the history of the various American religious traditions and the meaning of their many expressions The Blackwell Companion to American Religious History explores the key events, significant themes, and important movements in various religious traditions throughout the nation’s history from pre-colonization to the present day. Original essays written by leading scholars and new voices in the field discuss how religion in America has transformed over the years, explore its many expressions and meanings, and consider religion’s central role in American life. Emphasizing the integration of religion into broader cultural and historical themes, this wide-ranging volume explores the operation of religion in eras of historical change, the diversity of religious experiences, and religion’s intersections with American cultural, political, social, racial, gender, and intellectual history. Each chronologically-organized chapter focuses on a specific period or event, such as the interactions between Moravian and Indigenous communities, the origins of African-American religious institutions, Mormon settlement in Utah, social reform movements during the twentieth century, the growth of ethnic religious communities, and the rise of the Religious Right. An innovative historical genealogy of American religious traditions, the Companion: Highlights broader historical themes using clear and compelling narrative Helps teachers expose their students to the significance and variety of America’s religious past Explains new and revisionist interpretations of American religious history Surveys current and emerging historiographical trends Traces historical themes to contemporary issues surrounding civil rights and social justice movements, modern capitalism, and debates over religious liberties Making the lessons of American religious history relevant to a broad range of readers, The Blackwell Companion to American Religious History is the perfect book for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in American history courses, and a valuable resource for graduate students and scholars wanting to keep pace with current historiographical trends and recent developments in the field.
Here at last is the long-awaited continuation of The Religious Potential of the Child (from 3 to 6 years old). In this book Sofia Cavalletti draws on her long experience with children from diverse cultures and environments to describe the vital religious needs of the older child (6 to 12 years old). The theme of the covenant between God and humankind, first revealed to Israel, is expanded to include all of history, from creation to the Parousia, the second coming of Christ. This book will be a great help to educators and catechists seeking to understand the characteristics of the older child, particularly the child's relationship with the mystery of God.
For centuries Christians and Muslims have engaged with each other in manifold ways, peaceful and otherwise, be it in scholarly study, or in war and colonization. Today, Christians represent an influential body of opinion that largely perceives Islam, post 9/11, as a threat. Yet Muslims represent approximately one third of the world's population. Improved understanding between Christians and Muslims is therefore crucial and a prerequisite for universal peace and justice. This book aims to investigate Islam's place in the world, Muslim aspirations vis-a-vis non-Muslims and the realities of how Muslims are perceived and how they perceive others. Each chapter analyses accessible texts from central thinkers and commentators, broadly split into two camps: confrontational or conciliatory. Christian-Muslim relations are set in the wider context of civilizational, geo-political and economic interaction between the Muslim world and the historically Christian West.
In this cogent history, Hart unpacks evangelicalism's current reputation by tracing its development over the course of the 20th century. He shows how evangelicals entered the century as full partners in the Protestant denominations and agencies that molded American cultural and intellectual life.
"In Lloyd Geering's most controversial book so far, he examines the world at the end of the twentieth century, with the wisdom of a man who has lived through much of it. The Christian era is coming to an end: after two thousand years the religious faith which shaped western civilisation has been found wanting. After examining the reasons for Christianity's decline, the author writes eloquently about the likely shape of the global future. People everywhere will recognise his concerns at the turn of the century -- the fragility of the environment, the population explosion, the conflict of cultures, the deepening poverty, the ongoing nuclear threat. This is a book about endings, and about potential catastrophes. Yet Lloyd Geering also offers hope ... he sketches a future global society arising out of our increasing awareness of the current human predicament and of our dependence on the earth. The evolution of global consciousness could provide the spiritual dimension of the coming global culture, and enable the eartyh and its inhabitants to survive. The future of this "world to come" is in our hands."--Back cover.