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Essays and Reviews is a collection of seven articles that appeared in 1860, sparking a Victorian culture war that lasted for at least a decade. With pieces written by such prominent Oxford and Cambridge intellectuals as Benjamin Jowett, Mark Pattison, Baden Powell, and Frederick Temple (later archbishop of Canterbury), the volume engaged the relations between religious faith and current topics of the day in education, the classics, theology, science, history, literature, biblical studies, hermeneutics, philology, politics, and philosophy. Upon publication, the church, the university, the press, the government, and the courts, both ecclesiastical and secular, joined in an intense dispute. The book signaled an intellectual and religious crisis, raised influential issues of free speech, and questioned the authority and control of the Anglican Church in Victorian society. The collection became a best-seller and led to three sensational heresy trials. Although many historians and literary critics have identified Essays and Reviews as a pivotal text of high Victorianism, until now it has been almost inaccessible to modern readers. This first critical edition, edited by Victor Shea and William Whitla, provides extensive annotation to map the various positions on the controversies that the book provoked. The editors place the volume in its complex social context and supply commentary, background materials, composition and publishing history, textual notes, and a broad range of new supporting documents, including material from the trials, manifestos, satires, and contemporary illustrations. Not only does such an annotated critical edition of Essays and Reviews indicate the impact that the volume had on Victorian society; it also sheds light on our own contemporary cultural institutions and controversies.
Controversy, especially religious controversy, was the great spectator sport of Victorian England. This work is a study of the biggest and best of Victorian religious controversies. Essays and Reviews (1860) was a composite volume of seven authors (six of them Anglican clergymen) which brought England its first serious exposure to biblical criticism. It evoked a controversy lasting four years, including articles in newspapers, magazines and reviews, clerical and episcopal censures, a torrent of tracts, pamphlets and sermons, followed by weightier tomes (and reviews of all these), prosecution for heresy in the ecclesiastical courts, appeal to the highest secular court, condemnation by the Convocation of the clergy and a debate in Parliament. Essays and Reviews was the culmination and final act of the Broad Church movement. Outwardly the conflict ended inconclusively; at a deeper level, it marked the exhaustion both of the Broad Church and of Anglican orthodoxy and the commencement of an era of religious doubt. This controversy illustrates the pathology of Victorian religion in its demonstration of the propensity to controvert and the methods of controversialists. It is both the greatest Victorian crisis of faith and the best case study of Victorian religious controversy.
The credal affirmation, 'he descended to the dead', has attracted a plethora of views over the centuries and many Christians today struggle to explain the meaning of these words. This book explores various interpretations of the doctrine of Christ's descent to the dead, both within particular historical contexts and within contemporary theology. Laufer argues that the descensus clause, Christ's descent, is integral to Christian faith, specifically to the doctrine of the incarnation. If we are to affirm that, in Christ, God became truly human then that affirmation must include his sharing in the state of being dead that is the ultimate consequence of being human. Laufer concludes that, since the Son has experienced genuine human death and the separation from God which is the essence of hell, there is no longer any human condition from which God is absent, either in this life or in eternity. Christ's descent means that he is truly 'hell's destruction'. Drawing on a treasure trove of writings from the western theological tradition, including Luther, Calvin, Maurice, Balthasar, Moltmann and others, and attending to historical, theological, exegetical, philosophical and pastoral issues, this book explores an often-ignored doctrine which lies at the core of Christian life, death and faith.
During the latter half of his life, David Hume (1711-1776) achieved international celebrity status as a great philosopher and historian. The sceptical and anti-religious bent of his works generated hundreds of critical responses, many of which were scholarly commentaries. Other writers, though, focused less on Hume's specific publications and more on his reputation as a famous public figure. Wittingly or unwittingly, Hume was involved in many controversies: the attempts to excommunicate him from the Church of Scotland; his paradoxically close association with several Scottish clergymen; his quarrel with Jean Jacques Rousseau; his approach to his own death. Hume's enemies attacked his public character while his allies defended it. Friends and foes alike recorded anecdotes about him which appeared after his death in scattered periodicals and books. Hume's biographers have drawn liberally on this material, but in most cases the original sources are only summarized or briefly quoted. This set presents dozens of these biographically-related discussions of Hume in their most complete form, reset, annotated and introduced by James Fieser. The editor also provides the most detailed bibliographies yet compiled of Hume's writings and the early responses to them. These two volumes form the final part of the major "Early Responses to Hume" series, and they conclude with an index to the complete ten-volume collection. Like earlier sets in the series, these books should be welcomed by historians and Hume scholars all over the world, and research libraries should see them as important additions to holdings on the Scottish Enlightenment.
Varying according to the scope of Hayek's contributions, the papers in this volume include among others: * An affirmation of the "relevance" of Hayek's work * A survey of his contribution to knowledge * An appraisal of Hayek's innovative work on the methodology of the social sciences * A discussion of Hayek's achievements as scholar and mentor The contributors are: Fritz Machlup, Geroge Roche, Arthur Shenfield, Max Hartwell, William Buckley, Gottfried Dietze, Shirley Letwin.
English imprints by British Museum. Department of Printed Books
What ghost was being appeased? What wrong was being righted or sin atoned for? I didn’t know. It was all, this writing business – and had been since it first began when I was still at school – mysterious, possibly even neurotic. I knew only that for a moment the world which ‘out there’ seemed so imperfect, so ‘fallen’, so much less than the heart desired, ‘in here’ had been called to order. Every morning for the last thirty years, C. K. Stead has written fiction and poetry. Shelf Life collects the best of his afternoon work: reviews and essays, letters and diaries, lectures and opinion pieces. In this latest collection, a sequel to the successful Answering to the Language, The Writer at Work, and Book Self, Stead takes the reader through nine essays in ‘the Mansfield file’, collects works of criticism and review in ‘book talk’, writes in the ‘first person’ about everything from David Bain to Parnell, and finally offers some recent reflections on poetic laurels from his time as New Zealand poet laureate. Throughout, Stead is vintage Stead: clear, direct, intelligent, decisive, personal.
This volume brings together sixty items from 1933 and 1934, including Dewey's Terry Lectures at Yale University. With the publication of the lectures as A Common Faith, Dewey encouraged his readers to see religion as human experience in a naturalistic and humanistic setting. He proposed that institutional religions would do well to focus on ideal possibilities in the present time and place rather than relying on the supernatural and the hereafter. Book jacket.