This text introduces teachers to research methods they can use to examine their own classrooms in order to become more effective teachers. Becoming familiar with classroom-based research methods not only enables teachers to do research in their own classrooms, it also provides a basis for assessing the findings of existing research. McKay emphasizes throughout that what a teacher chooses to examine will dictate which method is most effective. Each chapter includes activities to help readers apply the methods described in the chapter, often by analyzing research data. *Chapter I, Classroom Research, introduces the reader to major research purposes and research types as they relate to classroom research, the distinction between quantitative and qualitative research, the formulation of research questions and research designs, and ethical issues in research. *Chapter II, Researching Teachers and Learners, presents research methods that can be used to examine teachers' and learners' attitudes and behaviors: action research, survey research, interviews, verbal reports, diary studies, case studies, and ethnographies. *Chapter III, Researching Classroom Discourse, deals with methods that can be used to study the oral and written discourse of classrooms: interaction analysis, discourse analysis, text analysis, and ways to examine the social and political assumptions underlying the choice and presentation of content in second language teaching materials. *Chapter IV, Writing Research Reports, provides guidelines for both thesis writing and journal articles. Researching Second Language Classrooms is an ideal text for TESOL research methods courses and an essential resource for inservice teachers who wish to undertake classroom research.
This book provides a critical overview of recent classroom-centred research and its implications for the teaching and learning of languages giving new insights into how languages are learned and what the effects of classroom instruction are.
New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language Classrooms brings together various approaches to the contextualized teaching of grammar and communicative skills as integrated components of second language instruction. Its purpose is to show from both theoretical and practical perspectives that grammar teaching can be made productive and useful in ESL and EFL classrooms. In this text: *First-rate scholars approach the teaching of grammar from multiple complementary perspectives, providing an original, comprehensive treatment of the topic. *Discourse analysis and research data are used to address such pedagogical areas as grammatical and lexical development in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. *The communicative perspective on ESL and EFL instruction that is presented provides ways for learners to enhance their production skills, whereas the meaning-based grammar instruction can supplement and strengthen current methodology with a communicative focus. This volume is intended as a foundational text for second language grammar pedagogy courses at the advanced undergraduate and master's levels.
Recent SLA research recognizes the necessity of attention to grammar and demonstrates that form-focused instruction is especially effective when it is incorporated into a meaningful communicative context. Designed specifically for second-language teachers, this text identifies and explores the various options for integrating a focus on grammar and a focus on communication in classroom contexts and offers concrete examples of teaching activities for each option. Each chapter includes a description of the option, its theoretical and empirical background, examples of activities illustrating in a non-technical manner how it can be implemented in the classroom, questions for reflection, and a list of useful resources that teachers can consult for further information.
This practical handbook is designed to help language teachers, teacher trainers, and students learn more about their options for using computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and develop an understanding of the theory and research supporting these options. The chapters in New Perspectives on CALL for Second Language Classrooms synthesize previous CALL theory and research and describe practical applications to both second and foreign language classrooms, including procedures for evaluating these applications. The implementation of CALL at the institutional level is also addressed, with attention to designing multimedia language laboratories and creating collaborative CALL-based projects between educational institutions. Although many chapters locate their descriptions of CALL activities and projects within the ESL/EFL setting, the principles and activities described are equally useful for other language settings. The book does not require prior knowledge of CALL, computers, or software. To assist readers, a glossary of CALL terms and an appendix of CALL Web sites are provided. The book also has its own accompanying Web site (http://www.erlbaum.com/callforL2classrooms) presenting chapter abstracts, author contact information, and regularly updated links to pedagogical, research, and teacher development sites. By integrating theoretical issues, research findings, and practical guidelines on different aspects of CALL, this book offers teachers multiple levels of resources for their own professional development, for needs-based creation of specific CALL activities, for curriculum design, and for implementation of institutional and inter-institutional CALL projects.
This book is an essential resource for all teachers, administrators and parents of children in international schools with students from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. It is a practical guide which includes references to the latest uses of embedded technology and numerous exemplary strategies and resources that are increasingly becoming customary usage in international schools.
This text introduces techniques for teachers to explore their classroom experiences and for critical reflection on teaching practices. This book introduces teachers to techniques for exploring their own classroom experiences. Numerous books deal with classroom observation and research, but this is the first to offer a carefully structured approach to self-observation and self-evaluation. Richards and Lockhart aim to develop a reflective approach to teaching, one in which teachers collect data about their own teaching; examine their attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions; and use the information they obtain as a basis for critical reflection on teaching practices. Each chapter includes questions and activities appropriate for group discussion or self-study.
This book analyses the classroom blending of face-to-face and online technologies in the teaching and learning of second languages. Its theoretical framework integrates the rapidly changing and developing fields of both applied linguistics and computer-assisted language learning (CALL). It examines such themes as the normalization of the computer and the rise of mobile devices, the development of open educational resources, flipped learning, gamification, and the increased focus on communication and problem-solving tasks in class. The author illustrates how the design or ‘bricolage’ of blended learning is part of a radical shift in our conceptualisation of the learning environment. Building on the framework established in its first edition, this book will appeal to teachers-in-training, scholars and practitioners of second language education.
Intended for current and future foreign language teaching professionals, volumes in the Theory and Practice in Second Language Classroom Instruction series examine issues in teaching and learning in language classrooms. The topics selected and the discussions of them draw in principled ways on theory and practice in a range of fields, including second language acquisition, foreign language education, educational policy, language policy, linguistics, and other areas of applied linguistics. Double Talk draws on six real-life stories of second language use and their implications for teaching today's language students by challenging the notion of a monolingual standard for our classrooms while pursuing a bilingual objective.
This volume brings together the current theoretical interest in reconceptualizing second and foreign language learning from a sociocultural perspective on language and learning, with practical concerns about second and foreign language pedagogy. It presents a set of studies whose focus is on the empirical description of particular practices constructed in classroom interaction that promote the learning of a second or foreign language. The authors examine in detail the processes by which the learning of additional languages is accomplished in the interaction of a variety of classrooms and in a variety of languages. Not only will the findings from the studies reported in this volume help to lay a foundation for the development of a more expansive, sociocultural model of second and foreign language learning, but on a more practical level they will help language educators in creating a set of principles for identifying and sustaining classroom interactional practices that foster additional language development. The volume is distinguished in three ways: * Following a Vygotskyan perspective on development, the studies assume that language learning is a fundamentally pragmatic enterprise, intrinsically linked to language use. This breaks from a more traditional understanding of second and foreign language learning, which has viewed learning and use as two distinct phenomena. The importance of classroom interaction to additional language development is foregrounded. * The investigations reported in this book are distinguished by their methodological approach. Because language learning is assumed to be a situated, context-sensitive, and dynamic process, the studies do not rely on traditional experimental methods for collecting and analyzing data, but rather, they involve primarily the use of ethnographic and discourse analytic methods. * The studies focus on interactional practices that promote second and foreign language learning. Although a great deal of research has examined first language learning in classrooms from a sociocultural perspective, little has looked at second and foreign language classrooms from such a perspective. Thus there is a strong need for this volume of studies addressing this area of research. Researchers, teacher educators, and graduate students across the fields of second and foreign language learning, applied linguistics, and language education will find this book informative and relevant. Because of the programmatic implications arising from the studies, it will also appeal to teacher educators and teachers of second and foreign languages from the elementary to the university levels.
This text is a self-contained, student-centered methods text that connects reading theory to practical classroom activities. The paperback edition, ideal for introductory courses on the teaching of second language reading, connects reading theory to practical classroom activities. Teachers begin by exploring their beliefs and assumptions about reading and analyzing their own reading strategies. This leads to a critical examination of the pedagogical issues central to the reading classroom, including selecting appropriate activities and effective lesson planning.
Language Arts & Disciplines by Jacquelyn Schachter
In an attempt to fill the gap left by the many published studies on classroom second language research, this book explores a variety of human, social, and political issues involved in the carrying out of such studies. Many journals are chock-full of the results of classroom research, with evidence to support one claim or another about the efficacy of one teaching method or another. Many textbooks are replete with statistical procedures to be used, and with experimental designs to fit varying situations. Too often overlooked in these treatments are the human, social, and political issues involved in carrying out research in classrooms that are not one's own. What are the problems going to be when one attempts work such as this? What does one do on discovering that an administrator's agenda is different than one had thought? What does one do when a teacher resents intrusions into her classroom? This book offers a view on those kinds of issues, as presented and managed by successful classroom researchers themselves. The authors present their own experiences including, on occasion, their trials and tribulations and how they dealt with them. They lay themselves open to criticism in doing so, but they make their contributions much the richer as well. The classroom contexts extend to different countries, and range from elementary schools to universities. Some of the issues presented are: * the necessarily collaborative nature of the research; * the question of meshing pedagogically sound and experimentally acceptable practices; * the often strong possibility that political and social decisions will interrupt the research; * the perennial question of reporting out the results; and * the training of graduate student researchers.
This volume challenges traditional approaches to foreign language education and proposes to redefine them in our age of international migration and globalization. Foreign language classrooms are no longer populated by monolingual students, but increasingly by multilingual students with highly diverse language backgrounds. This necessitates a new understanding of foreign language learning and teaching. The volume brings together an international group of researchers of high caliber who specialize in third language acquisition, teaching English as an additional language, and multilingual education. In addition to topical overview articles on the multilingual policies pursued in Europe, Africa, North America, and Asia, as well as several contributions dealing with theoretical issues regarding multilingualism and plurilingualism, the volume also offers cutting edge case studies from multilingual acquisition research and foreign language classroom practice. Throughout the volume, multilingualism is interpreted as a valuable resource that can facilitate language education provided it is harnessed in appropriate conditions.
Bringing together leading scholars and teacher educators from across the world, from Europe and the USA to Asia, this book presents the latest research and new perspectives into the uses of children's literature in second language teaching for children and young adults. Children's Literature in Second Language Education covers such topics as extensive reading, creative writing in the language classroom, the use of picturebooks and graphic novels in second language teaching and the potential of children's literature in promoting intercultural education. The focus throughout the book is on creative approaches to language teaching, from early years through to young adult learners, making this book an essential read for those studying or embarking on second language teaching at all levels.
This short, accessible new text in the McGraw-Hill Second Language Professional Series provides research-based information and practical advice to instructors who teach writing to second and foreign language learners. Based on the principles of communicative language teaching, the text can be used as a supplement to other books in the Series or to other main texts. It is appropriate for a basic methods course or a course on second or foreign language writing; it can also be used as part of a preparation course for ESL or foreign language teaching assistants, as a text for continuing education courses for high school ESL teachers, or as an aid for practicing second language teachers.
The volume constitutes a state-of-the-art account of issues related to teaching, learning and testing speaking in a second language. It brings together contributions by Polish and international scholars which seek to create links between theory, research and classroom practice, report the findings of studies investigating the impact of linguistic, cognitive and affective factors on the development and use of speaking skills, and provide concrete pedagogic proposals for instruction and assessment in this area. As such, the book will be of interest not only to second language acquisition theorists and researchers, but also to foreign language teachers willing to enhance the quality of speaking instruction in their classrooms.