Meat was originally processed to preserve it, but since the various procedures cause so many changes in texture and flavour it is also a means of adding variety to the diet. Processing also provides scope to mix the less desirable parts of the carcass with lean meat and in addition is a means of extending meat supplies by including other foodstuffs such as cereal in the product. Food preservation is a method of maintaining foods at a desired level of properties or nature for their maximum benefits. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and other micro organisms (although some methods work by introducing bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Today, meat is processed with salt, colour fixing ingredients, and seasonings in order to impart desired palatability traits to intact and comminuted meat products. Products intermediate to these categories are sectioned, or chunked and formed meats. There are various methods for the preservation of meat; curing, dry curing, smoking, canning, freezing dehydration, fat extraction (wet or steam rendering), etc. Meat curing agents include sodium chloride, nitrite, ascorbate or erythorbate and possibly sodium phosphate, sucrose, dextrose, or corn syrup and seasonings. The salt content of processed meats varies 1 to 12%, according to the type of product. Many intact and comminuted, cured meat products are smoked to impart a desirable smoked flavour and colour. The smoking process many also include a drying or cooking cycle, depending on the product. Canned meats may be processed to be commercially sterile or semi preserved. The objective of commercial sterilization is to destroy all harmful bacteria or bacteria that may cause spoilage of the product under normal unrefrigerated storage. However, the process does not kill the spores of all heat resistant bacteria. Frozen meat can be kept at low temperatures for many months. Freezing and subsequent thawing produce changes in the structure of meat that affect its physical properties. If meat is frozen very rapidly at low temperatures, the ice crystals are small and form within the fibers. The drip loss upon thawing is generally greater in slow frozen than in quick frozen meat. Freeze drying meat extends shelf life and reduces weight. The meat is readily defrosted by immersing in water before cooking. Under optimum processing and storage conditions, reconstituted meats have acceptable flavour, colour, texture and nutrient retention. The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock. The basic purpose of packaging is to protect meat and meat products from undesirable impacts on quality including microbiological and physio chemical alterations. Packaging protects foodstuffs during processing, storage and distribution from contamination by dirt (by contact with surfaces and hands), microorganisms (bacteria, moulds, and yeasts), parasites (mainly insects), toxic substances (chemicals), influences affecting colour, smell and taste (off odour, light, oxygen), loss or uptake of moisture. As such, due to the recent up gradation of preservation techniques, the preservation industry is also growing almost at the same rate as the food industry which is about 10 to 12% per year. Some of the fundamentals of the book are meat product, simultaneous flavouring and tenderizing, synthetic flavouring, preservation: moisture retention and surface protection, antimicrobial treatment, antioxidant application to freeze dried meats, packaging and handling for storage and transportation, continuous steam cooking of ground meat, activators of natural proteolytic enzymes, isotonic enzyme solution with specific activity, inactivation of enzymes with high pressure, etc. The origin of meat processing is lost in antiquity but probably began when primitive humans first learned that salt is an effective preservative and that cooking prolongs the keeping quality of fresh meat. This book includes the processing of fresh meats, the different curing agents, method of curing, smoking and manufacturing of various meat products such as sausages, canned meat, cured and smoked meats etc. The book is very useful for entrepreneurs, technocrats and those who want to venture in to this field. 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This second publication in the CTA series of food processing manuals, compiled by contributors from several developing countries, covers markets and marketing for meat and fish, planning production, meat processing, fish processing, quality assurance and legislation, and financial management (See also 1041, 1176).
Fish as food by NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
India is endowed with the largest livestock population in the world. Livestock and poultry in Indian tropical and sub tropics play a critical role in agriculture economy by providing milk, meat, eggs etc and provide flexible reserves during period of economic stress and buffer against crop failure. Mutton and Chicken is an important livestock product which in its widest sense includes all those parts of the animals that are used as the food by the man. So, with increase in population there is also an increasing consumer demand for food products that are low in fat, salt and cholesterol at local, national and international levels. Food manufacturers need to be able to produce meat, poultry and fish products which are considered to be healthy and that can meet the consumer demands. Meat industry, although is a very developing stage in India, is the top food industry in the world. Processed meat products are poised for continuous growth in the country. Poultry is one of the fastest growing segments of the agricultural sector. The main aim of this book is to provide complete guide on meat, fish and poultry processing. Owing to the wide variety of products and type of processes and treatments (curing, dry curing, fermentation, cooking smoking etc), this products need particular analytical methodologies for proper consumption. It examines the nutritional principles behind the drive for reductions in fat, salt and cholesterol in our diet, and illustrates formulations and procedures utilized to produce such products. The reader would get to explore brief discussion regarding the Indian meat industry followed by the next chapter which includes structure, composition and nutritive value of meat tissues, postmortem changes and some meat quality parameters are also added in the preceding chapters. It also discuss about meat cutting and packaging, processing of meat and meat products, microbial and other deteriorative changes in meat and their identification, chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre slaughter handling, transport and dressing of poultry, fish products, freezing fish fillets, miscellaneous fish dishes, spreads, salads, loaves fish spreads for appetizers, sandwiches, shellfish and miscellaneous marine products, meat removal and pre freezing treatment, packing and freezing, classes and sizes of fresh and frozen oysters, freezing whole raw lobsters etc. The book contains manufacturing processes of various meat, chicken and fish products in much illustrative manner. Special content on machinery equipment photographs along with supplier details has also been included. It is anticipated that, it turns out to be a resourceful book for entrepreneurs, technocrats, food technologists and others linked with this industry; as this would be an invaluable reference source for meat, poultry and fish processors, and food industry personnel involved in the development and marketing of new products.
Cooking (Meat) by NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers
Food preservation is a method of maintaining foods at a desired level of properties or nature for their maximum benefits. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. There are various methods of preservation chilling, freezing, curing, smoking, dehydration, canning, radiation preservation etc. Chilling is most widely used method for preservation for short term storage of meat because chilling or refrigeration slows down the microbial growth and enzymatic as well as chemical reactions. Freezing is the method of choice for the long term preservation of meat. It has advantage of retaining most of the nutritive value of meat during storage. Meat smoking was known to man as an aid in preservation for a long time. Smoke contains a large number of wood degradation products such as aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, and phenols etc. which exert bacteriostatic affect besides imparting characteristic smoky flavour. Canning is a process of preservation achieved by thermal sterilization of product held in hermetically sealed containers. Canning preserves the sensory attributes such as appearance, flavour and texture of the meat products to a large extent. Freeze drying of meat is a satisfactory process of dehydration preservation due to better reconstitution properties, nutritive quality and acceptability. It involves the removal of water from the frozen state to vapour state by keeping it under vacuum and giving a low heat treatment. Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered the character of the food being preserved. Meat and poultry products are chilled immediately after slaughter to acceptable internal temperatures which insure the prompt removal of the animal heat and preserve the wholesomeness of the products. As such, due to the recent up gradation of preservation techniques, the preservation industry is also growing almost at the same rate as the food industry which is about 10 to 12% per year. Some of the major aspects of the book are principles of various preservation techniques, standards and quality control measures for meat, meat food products order, eating quality and sensory evaluation of meat, preservation of poultry meat, utilisation of poultry industry by products, mixed poultry by products meal, structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs, luncheon meats, meat loaves, and meat spreads, barbecue style pork loaf using non fat dry milk, canned corned beef products, salisbury steak with textured vegetable protein, general instruction to be observed for processing canned items under sterm or under the combination of stream and water pressure, spaghetti and meat balls in tomato sauce with cheese, etc. Different preservation techniques are being developed to satisfy current demands of economic preservation and consumer satisfaction in nutritional and sensory aspects, convenience, absence of preservatives, low demand of energy and environmental safety. The present book contains various processes of meat and poultry preservation. All the entrepreneurs, technocrats, persons evolved in meat and poultry processing will be benefited from this book.
The space, setup, and equipment required to raise and process poultry are minimal when compared to other types of livestock, which is part of what makes chickens such an appealing choice for small-scale meat producers. Expert butcher and teacher Adam Danforth covers the entire slaughtering and butchering process in this photographic guide specifically geared toward backyard chicken keepers and small-farm operations invested in raising meat responsibly. With step-by-step photos, detailed instructions, and chapters dedicated to necessary tools and equipment, essential food safety measures, how to prepare for slaughter and process the birds quickly and humanely, how to break down the carcasses into cuts, and how to package and freeze the cuts to ensure freshness, this comprehensive handbook gives poultry raisers the information they need to make the most of their meat.
Swine by United States. Cooperative State Research Service. Current Research Information System
Eggs, meat, milk, wool, fur, feathers, and some priceless bucolic bliss. No hobby farm is complete without critters…possibly a small herd peppering the field or a microflock flapping around the hen house or pond. A single information-packed volume with everything a hobby farmer needs to know about farm animals, this new comprehensive manual to selecting, caring for, and breeding livestock brings forth the expertise of six hobby farmers, each of whom has real-life on-the-farm experience with the animals she discusses. Whether you’re contemplating adding a small herd of sheep or goats to your existing hobby farm or you’ve always wondered about the benefits of raising angora rabbits or Muscovy ducks, Livestock for Your Hobby Farm provides the kind of guidance you need to begin a herd or flock and expand your pens and fencing. With exhaustive detail, the authors offer complete coverage of chickens, ducks, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, and rabbits, including the housing, health-care, special needs, advantages and challenges of each. -Extensive sections devoted to the seven major farm animals, including profiles of the most popular breeds and varieties -Detailed how-to chapters on the care, handling, feeding, health, and safety of each animal -Special chapters devoted to the breeding and raising of young animals -Recommendations for ways of capitalizing on your livestock’s output, from selling eggs, milk, fiber, and so forth -Tips for troubleshooting potential problems and warding off diseases, parasites, and predators
A guide to the major food drying techniques and equipment. It features technologies for meats, fruits, vegetables, and seafood. It covers microbial issues and safety. It includes designs for drying systems and manufacturing lines, and information on microbial safety, preservation, and packaging.
This comprehensive work explores the demand, supply and variable consumer attitude toward a wide variety of unconventional and exotic animal species that are consumed in different parts of the world. Individual chapters focus on the consumption of horse meat, camel, buffalo, sheep, rabbit, wild boar, deer, goose, pheasant and exotic meats such as alligator, snake, frog and turtle. For each type of animal species, the carcass characteristics, physico-chemical properties and nutritional value of the meat are extensively outlined. The consumer preference, behavior and perception of each type of meat are also covered, with focus on important factors from sensory properties to psychological and marketing aspects. In promoting a better understanding of the complexities involved in consumer decision making, this book aims to improve the competitiveness of the meat industry through effective informational strategies that can increase consumer acceptance of more convenient, healthy and environmentally friendly meat choices. More than Beef, Pork and Chicken – The Production, Processing, and Quality Traits of Other Sources of Meat for Human Diet also focuses on the important role meat plays in the human diet and the evolution of the species. Beneficial factors such as protein, B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus are detailed. Negative factors are discussed as well, with issues such as fat and fatty acid content being addressed for each type of meat presented. In exploring the full range of nutritional benefits, consumer acceptance and carcass characteristics in a large quantity of different types of animal meats from all over the world, this book offers incredible value to researchers looking for a single source on unconventional meat processing.
Learn how to humanely slaughter cattle and butcher your own beef. In this straightforward guide, Adam Danforth provides clear instructions and step-by-step photography of the entire butchering process, from creating the right preslaughter conditions through killing, skinning, keeping cold, breaking the meat down, and perfecting expert cuts. With plenty of encouragement and expert advice on food safety, packaging, and necessary equipment, this comprehensive guide has all the information you need to start butchering your own beef.
Business & Economics by International Labour Office
It seems an irrefutable truth that raising animals for meat has become unsustainable. Land is being eroded and destroyed, water resources overdrawn, greenhouse gases overemitted, and energy and crops unnecessarily diverted - all to satiate a growing and inequitable global overconsumption of meat. But is all meat unsustainable? Sustainable food systems are multiple and varied and represent the diversity and complexity we see in the world. A range of socio-ecological and political-economic challenges and solutions are involved in the question of whether sustainable meat consumption exists. Green Meat? teases out some of that complexity in order to consider what roles animals and their products might play in the future as the world works towards new ways of living. Through an interdisciplinary lens, scholars and practitioners critically examine the multifaceted dimensions of "green meat": contributors confront the industrial production and slaughter of animals, ask what it means to be a carnivore, and consider the possibilities of regenerative animal agriculture and cellular agriculture. The book analyzes ongoing damage to the landscape, the climate, and water systems caused by conventional livestock production and looks at current debates about the place of meat in sustainable agri-food systems. An expansive inquiry into food production practices, Green Meat? will inspire the kind of discussion and debate necessary to grapple with the complex issue of sustainability.
China's emergence as a "beef giant" has enormous implications for the world beef market. The first up-to-date and full scale analysis of the booming beef industry of China, which produces a phenomenal five times more beef than Australia.The product of several years of fieldwork and university research, a collaboration with recognised industry authorities here and in China. Abundantly illustrated.John Longworth is the author of Beef in Japan published in 1983.
This title was first published in 2002: Changing economic, institutional and market environments have turned the spatial inter-relationships thought to exist in China upside-down. Through an investigation of the beef industry, this text builds a picture of where regionalization and integration are heading in China. It examines the impacts of market forces, industry characteristics, relative factor endowments and government influence on the spatial organization of activities. It reveals the influence of government as priorities are re-assessed and as markets and industries develop, as well as exploring the extent of regional co-ordination and co-operation and how central and local government policies and strategies reconcile. The volume also contains regional assessments of the beef industry in 12 key producing provinces and the key consumption areas of Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong.
In an increasingly commercialized world, the demand for better quality, healthier food has given rise to one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. food system: locally grown food. Many believe that "relocalization" of the food system will provide a range of public benefits, including lower carbon emissions, increased local economic activity, and closer connections between consumers, farmers, and communities. The structure of local food supply chains, however, may not always be capable of generating these perceived benefits. Growing Local reports the findings from a coordinated series of case studies designed to develop a deeper, more nuanced understanding of how local food products reach consumers and how local food supply chains compare with mainstream supermarket supply chains. To better understand how local food reaches the point of sale, Growing Local uses case study methods to rigorously compare local and mainstream supply chains for five products in five metropolitan areas along multiple social, economic, and environmental dimensions, highlighting areas of growth and potential barriers. Growing Local provides a foundation for a better understanding of the characteristics of local food production and emphasizes the realities of operating local food supply chains.