Science

Solar Thermal Energy Storage

Author: H.P. Garg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 642

View: 148

Energy Storage not only plays an important role in conservinq the energy but also improves the performance and reliability of a wide range of energy systems. Energy storagp. leads to saving of premium fuels and makes the system morA cost effective by reducing the wastage of energy. In most systems there is a mismatch between the energy supply and energy demand. The energy storage can even out this imbalance and thereby help in savings of capital costs. Enerqy storage is all the more important where the enerqy source is intermittent such as Solar Energy. The use of jntermittent energy sources is likely to grow. If more and more solar energy is to be used for domestic and industrial applications then energy storage is very crucial. If no storage is used in solar energy systems then the major part of the energy demand will be met by the back-up or auxiliary energy and therefore the so called annual solar load fract]on will be very low. In case of solar energy, both short term and long term energy storage systems can be used whjch can adjust the phase difference between solar energy supply and energy demand and can match seasonal demands to the solar availability respectively. Thermal energy storage can lead to capital cost savings, fuel savjngs, and fuel substitution in many application areas. Developing an optimum thermal storaqe system is as important an area of research as developinq an alternative source of energy.
Science

Solar Energy Storage

Author: Bent Sørensen

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 970

While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power’s inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides that energy storage will be pivotally important in the drive to boost the integration of variable renewable sources into power infrastructures across the globe. Thoughtfully implemented storage technologies can reduce peak demand, improve day-to-day reliability, provide emergency power in case of interrupted generation, reduce consumer and utility costs by easing load balance challenges, decrease emissions, and increase the amount of distributed and renewable energy that makes it into the grid. While energy storage has long been an area of concern for scientists and engineers, there has been no comprehensive single text covering the storage methods available to solar power producers, which leaves a lamentable gap in the literature core to this important field. Solar Energy Storage aims to become the authoritative work on the topic, incorporating contributions from an internationally recognized group of top authors from both industry and academia, focused on providing information from underlying scientific fundamentals to practical applications, and emphasizing the latest technological developments driving this discipline forward. Expert contributing authors explain current and emergent storage technologies for solar, thermal, and photovoltaic applications. Sheds light on the economic status of solar storage facilities, including case studies of the particular challenges that solar energy systems present to remote locations. Includes information on: chemical storage mechanisms, mechanical storage tactics, pumped hydro, thermal storage, and storage strategies for systems of all sizes—from centralized utilities to distributed generation.
Science

Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy Technologies

Author: Laltu Chandra

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 446

The proceedings entitled “Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies: Recent Trends and Applications” includes the peer-reviewed selected papers those are presented during NCSTET 2016. The sub-topics under concentrated solar thermal technologies and applications included in the book are Solar Field; Receiver and Heat Exchanger; Coating; Thermal Energy Storage; Cooling; Process Heat; and Smart Grid and Policy Research. The domains mentioned cover topics from resource-assessment, collection to conversion of solar energy for applications, like, heating, cooling and electricity. The proceedings also include invited lectures from domain experts. The edited work will be useful for beginners and for the advanced level researchers in the field of concentrated solar thermal technologies and their applications.
Business & Economics

Thermal Energy Storage for Commercial Applications

Author: Frank Dinter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 401

View: 573

Economic, efficient and reliable thermal storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants in order to smooth out insolation changes, to permit operation during the night period and to provide an output management tool for shifting output production to periods with high revenues. Nevertheless, thermal storage development has become almost a stepchild within the international solar thermal programs. This is due to the fact, that thermal storage is less a technological problem - technologically sophisticated storage concepts have been tested successfully in the past - but a problem of system optimization and cost minimization. The very limited storage research conducted for solar thermal power 0 plants concentrated mostly on high temperature storage, starting at 400 C and 0 reaching beyond 1000 C, as required by central tower technology. On the lower end of the temperature scale, a large variety of storage projects has been conducted for house 0 heating and house cooling at temperatures ranging from ambient to 100 C and for 0 0 concentrating collectors at temperatures between 180 C and 300 C. In the meantime, commercial solar thermal plant technology has made considerable technological progress since the last R&D project on solar thermal storage had ended in 1985: Since then, more than 300 MWe of solar plants with parabolic trough collectors were installed in California and their operating temperature was increased from the 0 0 former 300 C threshold to almost 400 C.
Technology & Engineering

Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Author: Luisa F. Cabeza

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 612

View: 743

Thermal energy storage (TES) technologies store thermal energy (both heat and cold) for later use as required, rather than at the time of production. They are therefore important counterparts to various intermittent renewable energy generation methods and also provide a way of valorising waste process heat and reducing the energy demand of buildings. This book provides an authoritative overview of this key area. Part one reviews sensible heat storage technologies. Part two covers latent and thermochemical heat storage respectively. The final section addresses applications in heating and energy systems. Reviews sensible heat storage technologies, including the use of water, molten salts, concrete and boreholes Describes latent heat storage systems and thermochemical heat storage Includes information on the monitoring and control of thermal energy storage systems, and considers their applications in residential buildings, power plants and industry
Technology & Engineering

Solar Heat Storage

Author: G.A. Lane

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 243

View: 372

Several hundred technically acceptable PCMs were identified in Volume I of this set, and some of their thermodynamic and physical properties were present. Out of these, practical considerations have reduced the list to a few commercial PCMs for solar energy thermal storage heating and cooling applications. In Volume II these PCMs and their technology and discussed.
Political Science

Solar Thermal Energy Storage System using phase change material for uninterrupted on-farm agricultural processing and value addition

Author: Anjum Munir

Publisher: kassel university press GmbH

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 46

View: 777

Thermal energy storage technologies are gaining attention nowadays for uninterrupted supply of solar power in off-sunshine hours. An indigenized solar phase change material (PCM) system was developed and performance evaluated in the current study to efficiently store solar thermal power using a latent heat storage approach, which can be utilized in any subsequent decentralized food processing application. A 2.5 m2 laying Scheffler reflector is used to precisely focus the incoming direct normal irradiance (DNI) on a casted aluminum heat receiver (220 mm diameter) from where this concentrated heat energy is absorbed and conducted to the PCM unit by the flow of thermal oil (Fragoltherm-32 thermo-oil). During the circulation around PCM pipes inside the PCM unit, thermal oil discharges heat energy to the PCM, which undergoes change of phase from solid to liquid. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the PCM unit were also performed according to the actual boundary conditions, which gave satisfactory results in terms of temperature and velocity distribution. With an average DNI of 781 W/m2, the highest temperature of the receiver surface during the trials was observed at about 155 C that produces thermal oil at 110°C inside the receiver and around 48°C of PCM in the PCM unit. The heat energy losses per unit time (W) due to the lack of reflectivity from the Scheffler reflector, out-of-focus radiations at the targeted area, absorptivity of heat receiver, piping system losses, and cylinder losses (in the form of conduction, convection, and radiations using 50 mm insulation thickness) were found to be 110 W (10 %), 99 W (9 %), 89 W (8 %), 128 W (12 %), 161 W (15 %), and 89 W (8 %), respectively. These findings of CFD analysis and mathematical modeling were also consistent with real-time data, which was logged through an online Control and Monitoring Interface portal. The final energy available to the PCM was 414W with an overall system efficiency of 38 %, which can be improved by decreasing thermal losses of the system and using other PCM materials.

Solar Thermal Energy

Author: A. RAAM DHEEP SREEKUMAR (G.)

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 144

View: 184

Key Features:An easy and explanative language. Basic concepts backed with practical experiments. Practical aspects of the subject forms an integral part of the pedagogy.About the Book:This book on Solar Thermal Energy-Including Laboratory Experiments is articulated to serve as an unswerving textbook-cum-laboratory manual for undergraduate, postgraduate and research students of science, engineering and technology. This book gives a coverage of fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, solar thermal energy devices along with all the important practical experiments in solar thermal energy engineering. Detailed descriptions are given in the beginning of the book to elucidate the theoretical aspects of practical experiments. Apposite tabular columns for recording the observations are given in all the experiments. Relevant equations for evaluating the performance of various solar thermal collectors are appended with appropriate experiments.This book will find its use as an authentic manual for solar thermal energy education as well as testing of different types of solar thermal collectors.
Technology & Engineering

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

Author: Manfred Becker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 767

View: 729

The energy crisis in 1973 and 1979 initiated a great number of activities and programs for low and high temperature applica tion of solar energy. Synthetic fuels and chemicals produced by solar energy is one of them, where temperatures in the range of 600-1000°C or even higher are needed. In principle such high temperatures can be produced in solar towers. For electricity production, the feasibility and operation of solar tower plants has been examined during the SSPS - project (Small Solar Power System) in Almeria, Spain. The objective of Solar Thermal Energy Utilization is to extend the experience from the former SSPS - program in to the field of solar produced synthetic fuels. New materials and technolo gies have to be developed in order to research this goal. Metallic components now in use for solar receivers need to be improved with respect to transient operation or possibly replaced by ceramics. High temperature processes, like steam-methane reforming, coal conversion and hydrogen produc tion need to be developed or at least adapted for the unconven tional solar operation. Therefore Solar Thermal Energy Utiliza tion is a long term program, which needs time for its develop ment much more time than the intervals expected in between further energy crisis. The "Studies on Technology and Applica tion on Solar Energy Utilization" is a necessary step in the right direction in order to prepare for the energy problems in the future.
Technology & Engineering

Solar Heat Storage

Author: Lane

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 246

View: 990

Several hundred technically acceptable PCMs were identified in Volume I of this set, and some of their thermodynamic and physical properties were present. Out of these, practical considerations have reduced the list to a few commercial PCMs for solar energy thermal storage heating and cooling applications. In Volume II these PCMs and their technology and discussed.
Science

Applications of Solar Energy

Author: Himanshu Tyagi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 661

This book focuses on solar-energy-based renewable energy systems and discusses the generation of electric power using solar photovoltaics, as well as some new techniques, such as solar towers, for both residential and commercial needs. Such systems have played an important role in the move towards low-emission and sustainable energy sources. The book covers a variety of applications, such as solar water heaters, solar air heaters, solar drying, nanoparticle-based direct absorption solar systems, solar volumetric receivers, solar-based cooling systems, solar-based food processing and cooking, efficient buildings using solar energy, and energy storage for solar thermal systems. Given its breadth of coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for researchers, students, and professionals alike.
Technology & Engineering

Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, and Materials

Author: Francis DeWinter

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1082

View: 654

Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, and Materials covers the materials and basic components needed for solar thermal energy systems. Using thermal performance and durability as the major criteria, the twenty six chapters emphasize the modeling and assessment of devices rather than their application or cost. Each part begins with an overview and concludes with an assessment of current issues and opportunities. The contributors have been careful to document failures as well as successes in materials research. This is the fifth volume in a series that distills the results of the intensive research on and development of solar thermal energy conversion technologies from 1975 to 1986. Francis de Winter is President of the Altas Corporation, Santa Cruz, California and a member of the Santa Cruz Energy Advisory Committee. Contents: Solar Collectors. Collector Concepts and Designs. Optical Theory and Modeling of Solar Collectors. Thermal Theory and Modeling of Solar Collectors. Testing and Evaluation of Stationary Collectors. Testing and Evaluation of Tracking Collectors. Optical Research and Development. Collector Thermal Research and Development. Collector Engineering Research and Development. Solar Pond Research and Development. Reliability and Durability of Solar Collectors. Environmental Degradation of Low-Cost Solar Collectors. Energy Storage for Solar Systems. Storage Concepts and Design. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Thermal Conversion Systems. Testing and Evaluation of Thermal Energy Storage Systems. Storage Research and Development. Materials for Solar Technologies. Materials for Solar Collector Concepts and Designs. Theory and Modeling of Solar Materials. Testing and Evaluation of Solar Materials. Exposure Testing and Evaluation of Performance Degradation. Solar Materials Research and Development.
Solar thermal energy

High Temperature Integrated Thermal Energy Storage System for Solar Thermal Applications

Author: Adam P. Bruckner

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Solar thermal energy

Page: 104

View: 606

This report presents an analysis of a novel, very high temperature solar thermal energy storage system which uses molten slag as the storage medium. Slag bead aggregate is melted in a solar central receiver and stored in liquid form at 1650 K in an insulated refractory storage vessel. Sensible heat is extracted from the molten slag in a direct-contact droplet heat exchanger, in which the slag is sprayed as a multitude of droplets through a high pressure counter-flowing working gas. The heated gas is used in a high-temperature regenerative Brayton cycle. The solidified slag droplets are returned to the solar receiver to repeat the cycle. Capital cost and present worth revenue requirement data are developed from a 10 MWe point-design electric power system for 1, 6, 15 and 48 hour storage.
Science

Solar Thermal Energy Utilization

Author: Manfred Becker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 618

The German R+D program "Solares Testzentrum Almeria" (SOTA) provides the scientific basis for the realization of advanced solar technologies including facility modifications, component tests and new lines of development. One of the working packages, WP 300, addresses the "Scientific Support" by the performance of preparatory studies, exploratory laboratory acitivities and qualified expertise. Universities, Research Institutes and Company R + D Entities in Germany are enabled to treat the following aspects: - Meteorological, system and cost investigations, - Development of important components as concentrator, receiver, storage, - Utilization of solar energy for process heat and chemical reactions. In 1988 and 1989 the studies concentrated on the development of components. The reports of the activities were finalized recently and collected in the present volumes. The final reports were printed as received under the responsibility of the autors.
Technology & Engineering

Concentrating Solar Power Technology

Author: K Lovegrove

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 704

View: 357

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is poised to take its place as one of the major contributors to the future clean energy mix. Using straightforward manufacturing processes, CSP technology capitalises on conventional power generation cycles, whilst cost effectively matching supply and demand though the integration of thermal energy storage. Concentrating solar power technology provides a comprehensive review of this exciting technology, from the fundamental science to systems design, development and applications. Part one introduces fundamental principles of concentrating solar power systems. Site selection and feasibility analysis are discussed, alongside socio-economic and environmental assessments. Part two focuses on technologies including linear Fresnel reflector technology, parabolic-trough, central tower and parabolic dish concentrating solar power systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems. Thermal energy storage, hybridization with fossil fuel power plants and the long-term market potential of CSP technology are explored. Part three goes on to discuss optimisation, improvements and applications. Topics discussed include absorber materials for solar thermal receivers, design optimisation through integrated techno-economic modelling, heliostat size optimisation, heat flux and temperature measurement technologies, concentrating solar heating and cooling for industrial processes, and solar fuels and industrial solar chemistry. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Concentrating solar power technology is an essential guide for all those involved or interested in the design, production, development, optimisation and application of CSP technology, including renewable energy engineers and consultants, environmental governmental departments, solar thermal equipment manufacturers, researchers and academics. Provides a comprehensive review of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, from the fundamental science to systems design, development and applications Reviews fundamental principles of concentrating solar power systems, including site selection and feasibility analysis and socio-economic and environmental assessments Provides an overview of technologies such as linear Fresnel reflector technology, parabolic-trough, central tower and parabolic dish concentrating solar power systems, and concentrating photovoltaic systems
Technology & Engineering

Harnessing Solar Heat

Author: Brian Norton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 258

View: 188

Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and collaborators at Cranfield University, University of Ulster, Dublin Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi and University of Nigeria. The initial chapters deal with relevant fundamental aspects of solar energy meteorology, radiative heat transfer, material properties and energy storage. Solar energy collectors are discussed in detail before a set of chapters deal with each of the full range of applications. The early chapters consider: the solar energy resource, its distribution in geographical, spectral, skyward geometrical and temporal domains; the physics of solar energy absorption, transmission and loss at surfaces; and techniques for storing collected solar energy. Specific collector sub-systems are then discussed in chapters seven to nine. For each system, practical issues are discussed and a proven analytical procedure for predicting performance described. Similarly analyses are presented in the concluding chapters on solar energy systems. These range from dryers to greenhouses to systems that render buildings solar energy systems in themselves and the associated design issues. The context for any use of solar energy is the prevailing climate. This text, being global in scope, definates the most appropriate regions for particular technologies and applications. It is a research-orientated academic work citing publications on the peer-reviewed literature covering engineering and applied science topics intended both for student use, as a reference tool for teaching solar energy and for those researching solar thermal applications in universities, industry or national/commercial laboratories. Insight into the challenges of implementation including practical constraints and operational considerations are provided to aid those undertaking feasibility studies, technical assistance, training assignments or operating testing facilities.