Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions
This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 - 30 August 1996. The first conference of this series took place in Dublin (1955); second, Basel and Locarno (1956); third, Cambridge (1958); fourth, Frankfurt am Main and Heidelberg (1961); fifth, Clermont-Ferrand and Tolouse (1963); sixth, Albany and University Park (1966); seventh, Prague and Vienna (1969); eighth, Leningrad (1973); ninth, Galway (1977); tenth, Hamburg (1981); eleventh Budapest (1984); twelfth, Vienna (1988); thirteenth, Salt Lake City (1992). The Atmospheric Aerosol conference has been held jointly with the Nucleation Symposium since 1988 in Vienna in order to stimulate contacts between researchers in these closely related fields. The broad nature of the meeting and the scientific program resulted in 32 countries submitting papers for presentation. Covering both experimental and theoretical studies these papers are divided amongst the chapters on Nucleation, Stratospheric Aerosols and Ice Nucleation, Tropospheric Aerosols and Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction. In addition to these contributed papers invitations to present a plenary lecture on topics of particular current interest were accepted by P.J. Crutzen, J. Gras, J.L. Katz, A.A. Lushnikov, D. Oxtoby, J.E. Penner, Th. Peter, F. Raes, S.E. Schwartz, R. Strey and G. Vali. These plenary papers together with the contributed papers provide a well-balanced perspective of the current research over the entire field and highlight some important issues.
An overview of the recent progress of research in computational physics and materials science. Particular topics are modelling of traffic flow and complex multi-scale solidification phenomena. The sections introduce novel research results of experts from a considerable diversity of disciplines such as physics, mathematical and computational modelling, nonlinear dynamics, materials sciences, statistical mechanics and foundry technique. The book intends to create a comprehensive and coherent image of the current research status and illustrates new simulation results of transport and interface dynamics by high resolution graphics. Various possible perspectives are formulated for future activities. Special emphasis is laid on exchanging experiences concerning numerical tools and on the bridging of the scales as is necessary in a variety of scientific and engineering applications. An interesting possibility along this line was the coupling of different computational approaches leading to hybrid simulations.
Essential themes in the biochemical cycling of mercury are the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources, transformation and migration processes at the local, regional and global scale, global emission inventories of different mercury sources (both point and diffuse) of both natural and anthropogenic origin. In this regard, Siberia, with its vast territory and variety of natural zones, is of special interest in the global mercury cycle and in terms of the influence of geographical zones on source and sink terms in regional budgets. Siberia contains large areas of mercuriferous belts; natural deposits that emit mercury into the atmosphere and water. Siberian gold has been mined with the use of mercury since the early 1800s. But there, too, huge forest zones and vast areas of tundra and wetland (bogs) can act as efficient sinks for atmospheric mercury. Audience: Environmental scientists, legislators, politicians and the interested citizen wishing to gain a clear picture of the biogeochemical cycling of mercury.
Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments. However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion. Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes: • Satellite aerosol remote sensing • The effects of aerosols on climate change • Air pollution and health • Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery • Bioaerosols and hospital infections • Particle emissions from vehicles • The safety of emerging nanomaterials • Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely, concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.
These proceedings give a rather complete overview of the most recent research in the areas of fundamental processes and phase transitions, cloud droplet and ice nucleation in the atmosphere, and aerosol formation and aerosol characteristics in the atmosphere. Nine review papers on topics of special importance are supplemented by about 200 summaries on topics of greatest current importance. The volume should be of interest to scientists working in the atmospheric and environmental sciences, in chemistry and in physics, as well as to engineers working in these areas.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiv PART I MERCURY AND HUMAN HEALTH B. WHEATLEY and S. PARADIS I Exposure of Canadian Aboriginal Peoples to Methylmercury 3-11 M. GIRARD and C. DUMONT I Exposure of James Bay Cree to Methylmercury during Pregnancy for the Years 1983-91 13-19 M. RICHARDSON, M. MITCHELL, S. COAD and R. RAPHAEL I Exposure to Mercury in Canada: A Multimedia Analysis 21-30 M. RICHARDSON, M. EGYED and D. J. CURRIE I Human Exposure to Mercury may Decrease as Acidic Deposition Increases 31-39 L. E. FLEMING, S. WATKINS, R. KADERMAN, B. LEVIN, D. R. AVYAR, M. BIZZIO, D. STEPHENS and J. A. BEAN I Mercury Exposure in Humans through Food Consumption from the Everglades of Florida 41-48 J. M. GEARHART, H. J. CLEWELL III, K. S. CRUMP, A. M. SHIPP and A. SILVERS I Pharmacokinetic Dose Estimates of Mercury in Children and Dose-Response Curves of Performance Tests in a Large Epidemiological Study 49-58 I. SKARE I Mass Balance and Systemic Uptake of Mercury Released from Dental Amalgam Fillings 59-67 J. DELLINGER, N. KMIECIK, S. GERSTENBERGER and H. NGU I Mercury Contamina tion of Fish in the Ojibwa Diet: I. Walleye Fillets and Skin-On versus Skin-Off Sampling 69-76 J. DELLINGER, L. MALEK and M. BEATTIE I Mercury Contamination of Fish in the Ojibwa Diet: II. Sensory Evoked Responses in Rats Fed Walleye 77-83 H. AKAGI, O. MALM, F. J. P. BRANCHES, Y. KINJO, Y. KASHIMA, J. R. D. GUIMARAES, R. B. OLIVEIRA, K. HARAGUCHI, W. C. PFEIFFER, Y.
This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.
Unique and informative, Water Properties of Food, Pharmaceutical, and Biological Materials is based on lectures and papers given by leading international researchers at the 9th International Symposium of the Properties of Water in Foods (ISOPOW 9) that took place in September 2004. Each chapter presents an authoritative account of the latest research on the physical and chemical properties of water in relation to the stability of food, pharmaceutical, and biological materials. The first part of the text focuses on presentations given by invited speakers, whereas the second part is dedicated to oral presentations and discussions. Topics include the role of water in structural and functional properties, preserving biomolecule functionality in restricted water environments, and micro- and nano- techniques used for assessing water-solid interactions in food and drug development. This book is an invaluable resource that synthesizes cutting-edge information with innovative viewpoints from internationally esteemed researchers who participated in ISOPOW 2004.