**Author**: N.A. Gokcen

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**

**Category:** Science

**Page:** 342

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## Statistical Thermodynamics of Alloys

This book is intended for scientists, researchers, and graduate students interested in solutions in general, and solutions of metals in particular. Readers are assumed to have a good background in thermodynamics, presented in such books as those cited at the end of Chapter 1, "Thermo dynamic Background." The contents of the book are limited to the solutions of metals + metals, and metals + metalloids, but the results are also appli cable to numerous other types of solutions encountered by metallurgists, materials scientists, geologists, ceramists, and chemists. Attempts have been made to cover each topic in depth with numerical examples whenever necessary. Chapter 2 presents phase equilibria and phase diagrams as related to the thermodynamics of solutions. The emphasis is on the binary diagrams since the ternary diagrams can be understood in terms of the binary diagrams coupled with the phase rule, and the Gibbs energies of mixing. The cal culation of thermodynamic properties from the phase diagrams is not emphasized because such a procedure generally yields mediocre results. Nevertheless, the reader can readily obtain thermodynamic data from phase diagrams by reversing the detailed process of calculation of phase diagrams from thermodynamic data. Empirical rules on phase stability are given in this chapter for a brief and clear understanding of the physical and atomistic factors underlying the alloy phase formation.
## Statistical Thermodynamics of Semiconductor Alloys

Statistical Thermodynamics of Semiconductor Alloys is the consideration of thermodynamic properties and characteristics of crystalline semiconductor alloys by the methods of statistical thermodynamics. The topics presented in this book make it possible to solve such problems as calculation of a miscibility gap, a spinodal decomposition range, a short-range order, deformations of crystal structure, and description of the order-disorder transitions. Semiconductor alloys, including doped elemental semiconductors are the basic materials of solid-state electronics. Their structural stability and other characteristics are key to determining the reliability and lifetime of devices, making the investigation of stability conditions an important part of semiconductor physics, materials science, and engineering. This book is a guide to predicting and studying the thermodynamic properties and characteristics of the basic materials of solid-state electronics. Includes a complete and detailed consideration of the cluster variation method (CVM) Provides descriptions of spinodal decomposition ranges of crystalline alloys Presents a representation of thermodynamics characteristics and properties as a miscibility gap by using the different approximations of CVM Covers a unique, detailed consideration of the valence force field model with the complete collection of formulas
## Alloy Physics

Covering the latest research in alloy physics together with the underlying basic principles, this comprehensive book provides a sound understanding of the structural changes in metals and alloys -- ranging from plastic deformation, deformation dynamics and ordering kinetics right up to atom jump processes, first principle calculations and simulation techniques. Alongside fundamental topics, such as crystal defects, phase transformations and statistical thermodynamics, the team of international authors treats such hot areas as nano-size effects, interfaces, and spintronics, as well as technical applications of modern alloys, like data storage and recording, and the possibilities offered by materials design.
## A Statistical Thermodynamic Model for the Structure of Amorphous Covalent Alloys

## Statistical Mechanics of Solids

This monograph, suitable for use as an advanced text, presents the statistical mechanics of solids from the perspective of the material properties of the solid state. The statistical mechanics are developed as a tool for understanding properties and each chapter includes useful exercises to illustrate the topics covered. Topics discussed include the theory of the harmonic crystal, the theory of free electrons in metal and semiconductors, electron transport, alloy ordering, surfaces and polymers.
## Thermodynamics of Materials

"Thermodynamics of Materials" introduces the basic underlying principles of thermodynamics as well as their applicability to the behavior of all classes of materials, while providing an integrated approach from macro- (or classical) thermodynamics to meso- and nanothermodynamics, and microscopic (or statistical) thermodynamics. The book is intended for scientists, engineers and graduate students in all fields involving materials science-related disciplines. Both Dr. Qing Jiang and Dr. Zi Wen are professors at Jilin University.
## Statistical Thermodynamics of Semiconductor Alloys

Statistical Thermodynamics of Semiconductor Alloys is the consideration of thermodynamic properties and characteristics of crystalline semiconductor alloys by the methods of statistical thermodynamics. The topics presented in this book make it possible to solve such problems as calculation of a miscibility gap, a spinodal decomposition range, a short-range order, deformations of crystal structure, and description of the order-disorder transitions. Semiconductor alloys, including doped elemental semiconductors are the basic materials of solid-state electronics. Their structural stability and other characteristics are key to determining the reliability and lifetime of devices, making the investigation of stability conditions an important part of semiconductor physics, materials science, and engineering. This book is a guide to predicting and studying the thermodynamic properties and characteristics of the basic materials of solid-state electronics. Includes a complete and detailed consideration of the cluster variation method (CVM) Provides descriptions of spinodal decomposition ranges of crystalline alloys Presents a representation of thermodynamics characteristics and properties as a miscibility gap by using the different approximations of CVM Covers a unique, detailed consideration of the valence force field model with the complete collection of formulas
## Statistical Mechanics And The Physics Of Many-particle Model Systems

The book is devoted to the study of the correlation effects in many-particle systems. It presents the advanced methods of quantum statistical mechanics (equilibrium and nonequilibrium), and shows their effectiveness and operational ability in applications to problems of quantum solid-state theory, quantum theory of magnetism and the kinetic theory. The book includes description of the fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis following the approach of N N Bogoliubov's school, including recent developments. It provides an overview that introduces the main notions of quantum many-particle physics with the emphasis on concepts and models. This book combines the features of textbook and research monograph. For many topics the aim is to start from the beginning and to guide the reader to the threshold of advanced researches. Many chapters include also additional information and discuss many complex research areas which are not often discussed in other places. The book is useful for established researchers to organize and present the advanced material disseminated in the literature. The book contains also an extensive bibliography. The book serves undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, as well as researchers who have had prior experience with the subject matter at a more elementary level or have used other many-particle techniques.
## Non-Metallic Elements in Liquid Metals

The purpose of this book is to discuss the properties of non-metallic elements, when dissolved as a minor impurity in liquid metals and alloys, in terms of statistical thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and the latest structural models. The behaviour of non-metallic elements in liquid metals is one of the most important problems in metallurgical and physical chemistry, since it plays a central role in the manufacture of metallic materials.
## Structural Thermodynamics of Alloys

Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary steels, he can now expect, due to metallurgical research, the creation of special alloys meeting specific requirements. These requirements must of course be reasonable, but VIII INTRODUCTION must be sufficiently imperative for them to become the motive for progress.
## Order and Phase Stability in Alloys

The main purpose of this book is to describe the modern tools of solid state physics (in particular, electronic structure calculations and statistical thermodynamics) that enable us to understand ordering effects in alloys and to determine phase diagrams. This approach is used more to throw light on the most important physical mechanisms rather than to be able to make accurate predictions suitable for particular applications. On the other hand, more phenomenological, practically oriented approaches can expand the scope of these new theoretical insights. A second purpose of the book is to show that materials science can provide wonderful and too often ignored examples to test and discuss the most fundamental physical theories. For example, many real alloys on a face centered cubic lattice are marvellous examples of the Ising model on this lattice with many different ordered structures, commensurate or not. The text is therefore definitely theoretical, with emphasis on the methods more than on the interpretation of experiments. It contains two principal parts which follow an introductory chapter. Part one discusses the application of the Ising model to ordering phenomena in alloys and discusses the principles of the techniques described in detail. The second part is devoted to the electronic structure of alloys, its main purpose being to explain the principles of a recently developed method that enables the calculation of interatomic interactions and the justification of the use of an effective Ising model.
## Metallic Alloys: Experimental and Theoretical Perspectives

The development of new materials is recognized as one of the major elements in the overall technological evolution that must go on in order to sustain and even improve the quality of life for citizens of all nations. There are many components to this development, but one is to achieve a better understanding of the properties of materials using the most sophisticated scientific tools that are available. As condensed matter physicists and materials scientists work toward this goal, they find that it is useful to divide their efforts and focus on specific areas, because certain analytical and theoretical techniques will be more useful for the study of one class of materials than another. One such area is the study of metals and metallic alloys, which are used in the manufacture of products as diverse as automobiles and space stations. Progress in this area has been very rapid in recent years, and the new developments come from many different countries. For these reasons the Advanced Research Workshop Programme in the NATO Scientific Affairs Division has seen fit to sponsor several meetings to bring together the researchers and students working in this field from the NATO countries and elsewhere. There have been a series of NATO-ASI's that have dealt with the results of research on the electronic structure of materials and the properties of metals, alloys, and interfaces. They are: "Electrons in finite and infinite structures" P. Phariseau and L.
## Proceedings of the International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Alloys

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Alloys
## Structural and Phase Stability of Alloys

This vohune contains the papers presented at the Adriatico Research Conference on Structural and Phase Stability of Alloys held in Trieste, Italy, in May 1991, under the auspices of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics. The conference brought together participants with a variety of interests in theoretical and experimental aspects of alloys from Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechslovakia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, People's Republic of Congo,Portugal, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, U. S. S. R. , and Venezuela. The conference was purposely designed to succinctly cover experimental and the oretical aspects of magnetic and non-magnetic alloys, surfaces, thin films and nanos tructures. The Conference opened with an overview of a select class of advanced structural materials, with a potential in engineering applications, for which the con ventional "physics" approach, both theoretical and experimental, should have a sig nificant impact. A number of papers were dedicated to the use of phenomenological approaches for the description of thermodynamic bulk and surface properties. It was clear from these presentations that the phenomenological models and simulations in alloy theory have reached a high degree of sophistication. Although with somewhat limited predictive powers, the phenomenological models provide a valuable tool for the understanding of a variety of subtle phenomena such as short-range order, phase stability, kinetics and the thermodynamics of surfaces and antiphase boundaries, to name a few.
## Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys

Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys Hasse Fredriksson KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden Ulla Åkerlind University of Stockholm, Sweden Solidification or crystallization occurs when atoms are transformed from the disordered liquid state to the more ordered solid state, and is fundamental to metals processing. Conceived as a companion volume to the earlier works, Materials Processing during Casting (2006) and Physics of Functional Materials (2008), this book analyzes solidification and crystallization processes in depth. Starting from the thermodynamic point of view, it gives a complete description, taking into account kinetics and mass transfer, down to the final structure. Importantly, the book shows the relationship between the theory and the experimental results. Topics covered include: Fundamentals of thermodynamics Properties of interfaces Nucleation Crystal growth - in vapours, liquids and melts Heat transport during solidification processes Solidification structures - faceted, dendritic, eutectic and peritectic Metallic glasses and amorphous alloy melts Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys features many solved examples in the text, and exercises (with answers) for students. Intended for Masters and PhD students as well as researchers in Materials Science, Engineering, Chemistry and Metallurgy, it is also a valuable resource for engineers in industry.
## Advances in Biomolecular Simulations

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