An engaging exploration of the scientific theories and medical conditions relating to stress and an examination of case studies that suggest ways to manage, reduce, and prevent stress in everyday life. • Examines the impact of stress on both physical and psychological health and from both theoretical and practical perspectives • Provides broad, detailed coverage that explains what stress is, the effects of stress, and effective—and ineffective—methods of coping with or reducing stress • Includes personal accounts from individuals who explain how a specific coping strategy worked for them, thereby providing suggestions of how readers may be able to improve the quality of their own lives
Through sections containing overview essays and reference entries related to particular religions, this resource explores the rise of religious violence, hate crime, and persecution around the world. Religious violence and persecution have been growing steadily both within the United States and around the world. Drawing on the expertise of a wide range of scholars, this current and comprehensive reference helps readers understand the persecution of members of particular faiths as well as violence committed by members of those faiths. In doing so it promotes a greater understanding of the role of religion in global politics, domestic and international terrorism, and religious bigotry. The book contains sections on particular religious traditions from around the world. Each section begins with an overview essay surveying violence related to that particular religion, whether committed by or against members of that faith. Reference entries in each section then provide objective, fundamental information about particular topics related to violence and the religion discussed. The entries provide cross-references and suggestions for further reading, and the work closes with a bibliography of resources for further study. Sections are devoted to particular religions from around the world. Overview essays in each section survey religious violence associated with that particular faith. Reference entries in each section provide current fundamental information about specific topics related to religious violence within a faith tradition. Excerpts from primary source documents give readers first-hand accounts of religious violence for critical analysis. Cross-references and suggestions for further reading direct users to related topics and additional resources.
Written in clear, nontechnical language, and filled with lively historical and cultural highlights, this comprehensive reference work is a scientifically grounded yet thoroughly readable introduction to depressive disorders. • About 300 entries on depression, including the genetic, biological, environmental, and personality factors underlying it as well as the latest treatments • Brief bibliographies with each entry, directing readers to additional print and online sources • Fascinating sidebars on issues, breakthroughs, and famous persons who suffered from depression, including Abraham Lincoln, Charles Dickens, Irving Berlin, Vincent van Gogh, and Georgia O'Keeffe • A comprehensive index
This unique two-volume work analyzes the Industrial Revolution from a global perspective and traces its influences up to the present day—encouraging students to rethink the significance of events past and present. • Enables students to analyze the causes and effects of industrialization • Takes a multidisciplinary approach that supports the National Standards for World History, as well as multicultural studies and business curricula • Allows for comparison and contrast of different industrializing societies in different eras • Helps readers make connections between the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the digital advances of today
Will all evil finally turn to good, or does some evil remain stubbornly opposed to God and God's goodness? Will even the devil be redeemed? Addressing a theological issue of perennial interest, this comprehensive book (in two volumes) surveys the history of Christian universalism from the second to the twenty-first century and offers an interpretation of how and why universalist belief arose. The author explores what the church has taught about universal salvation and hell and critiques universalism from a biblical, philosophical, and theological standpoint. He shows that the effort to extend grace to everyone undermines the principle of grace for anyone.
This work is the first encyclopedia on the labor practices that constitute modern-day slavery—and the individuals and organizations working today to eradicate them. • 450 entries on slavery practices and antislavery efforts, with coverage of Anti-Slavery International (ASI), Kevin Bales, the Bonded Labor Liberation Front (BLLF), debt bondage, the Laogai system, and more • 125 expert contributors from around the world, many among them key players in the fight to stop slave practices • 60 primary source documents, including official United Nations documents, antislavery legislation from various nations, and brief autobiographical accounts • A chronology highlighting the key events in the development of modern-day slavery • Maps, including a global map showing where modern-day slavery persists, and maps of various "hot spots", including Sudan, Mauritania, Pakistan, China, etc. • An exhaustive bibliography guiding readers to the available literature on contemporary slavery
Acculturative Stress and Change in Nigerian Society argues that, in the aftermath of European domination and colonial rule, African struggle and the relationships between social groups in Africa can be traced to the legacy of colonialism as well as events in the post-colonial struggle of domination by the elites. This book locates ethnic conflict in Nigeria not only in the colonial history, but in the attitude and practices of the political elites. Using the Annang of Nigeria as a case study, the book traces their history and struggle for ethnic identity and recognition from pre-colonial times to the post-civil war period. It further argues that colonialism destroyed the Annang identity but the struggle for power following colonialism has also raised other problems. What happened to the Annang represents an example that was repeated all over Africa. The author maintains that what is happening among the Annang is symptomatic of the African struggle. This book moves beyond the usual discussion of the effects of colonialism in the continent which views the modern state as a monolithic whole. It presents as a real-life example of the effects of colonialism and power relationships in the post-independent continent, and therefore, a window through which to see the African problems in modern times. The African elites who took power from the colonialists simply continued policies that did not promote growth and development. It further argues that specific actions and policies in the pre- and post-colonial period contributed to where the continent is today.
A reference work that thoroughly documents the extensive military history of the Islamic world between the 7th century and the present day. • Includes an introductory essay • Provides over 600 A–Z entries, many with accompanying images • Contains contributions by some of the leading scholars in the field of military history • Provides a convenient glossary of commonly used Islamic military terms intended for general readers
This set is an unprecedented examination of religion's influence on modern life, an honest assessment of how religion can either destroy us or preserve us, and a thorough exploration of what steps might be necessary for all religions to join together as a force for good. Convening on the fifth anniversary of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, the global congress The World's Religions after September 11 explored the negative and positive possibilities of the religious dimensions of life. The presentations from the congress have been pulled together in this set, which addresses religion's intersection with human rights, spirituality, science, healing, the media, international diplomacy, globalization, war and peace, and more. This comprehensive set includes contributions from such well-known scholars of religion as Arvind Sharma and a host of others from all the world's religious traditions. This set is an unprecedented examination of religion's influence on modern life, an honest assessment of how religion can either destroy us or preserve us, and a thorough exploration of what steps might be necessary for all religions to join together as a force for good. Because of the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the very concept of religion underwent a paradigm shift. Instead of standing for virtue and piety, peace and harmony, the word religion also came to be inextricably associated with evil, aggression, and terror. People around the world began to question whether the religious and secular dimensions of modern life can be reconciled, whether the different religions of the world can ever coexist in harmony. Indeed, the very future of religion itself has sometimes seemed to be uncertain, or at least suspect.
Should scientific congresses take place in connection with Olympic Games, and should science be represented not only in the form of applied science engaged in the care of athletes, but also as an informing, reflecting and critical authority? The Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad answered this question in the affirmative, and the results have justified this decision. The invitation sent out by the Organizing Committee was accepted by numerous eminent scholars and many participants from all over the world; it was their merit that the general topic of the congress could be discussed in manifold ways under various aspects and without prejudice. For this reason, they deserve our gratitude and appreciation. By now, the congress report has been completed. It is part of the total scientific concept which includes the preparatory publication, "The Scientific View of Sport Perspectives, Aspects, Issues", the congress itself and the present report; and, in close connection therewith, the exhibitions, "100 Years of German Excavation Work in Olympia", "Sport and Medicine" and the literary exhibition. It is to be hoped that this report will prove an important source of information and a stimulus for discussion among participants and scholars, students, teachers and coaches; and that it will safeguard the fruitful continuation of the work initiated by the Munich congress. Thanks are due to those who took pains in preparing this document. It will be an essential element within the framework of all that will remain of the Olympic Games of 1972.
Literary History: Towards a Global Perspective is a research project funded by the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet). Initiated in 1996 and launched in 1999, it aims at finding suitable methods and approaches for studying and analysing literature globally, emphasizing the comparative and intercultural aspect. Even though we nowadays have fast and easy access to any kind of information on literature and literary history, we encounter, more than ever, the difficulty of finding a credible overall perspective on world literary history. Until today, literary cultures and traditions have usually been studied separately, each field using its own principles and methods. Even the conceptual basis itself varies from section to section and the genre concepts employed are not mutually compatible. As a consequence, it is very difficult, if not impossible, for the interested layperson as well as for the professional student, to gain a clear and fair perspective both on the literary traditions of other peoples and on one's own traditions. The project can be considered as a contribution to gradually removing this problem and helping to gain a better understanding of literature and literary history by means of a concerted empirical research and deeper conceptual reflection. The contributions to the four volumes are written in English by specialists from a large number of disciplines, primarily from the fields of comparative literature, Oriental studies and African studies in Sweden. All of the literary texts discussed in the articles are in the original language. Each one of the four volumes is devoted to a special research topic.
Beyond their impact on public health, epidemics shape and are shaped by political, economic, and social forces. This book examines this connection, exploring key topics in the study of disease outbreaks and delving deep into specific historical and contemporary examples. From the Black Death that ravaged Europe in the 14th century to the influenza pandemic following World War I to the novel strain of coronavirus that made "social distancing" the new normal, wide-scale disease outbreaks have played an important role throughout human history. In addition to the toll they take on human lives, epidemics have spurred medical innovations, toppled governments, crippled economies, and led to cultural revolutions. Epidemics and Pandemics: From Ancient Plagues to Modern-Day Threats provides readers with a holistic view of the terrifying—and fascinating—topic of epidemics and pandemics. In Volume 1, readers will discover what an epidemic is, how it emerges and spreads, what diseases are most likely to become epidemics, and how disease outbreaks are tracked, prevented, and combated. They will learn about the impacts of such modern factors as global air travel and antibiotic resistance, as well as the roles played by public health agencies and the media. Volume 2 offers detailed case studies that explore the course and lasting significance of individual epidemics and pandemics throughout history. Examines the topic from a number of angles, offering readers a holistic view of how epidemics and pandemics have affected and continue to affect the world Explains the science behind the emergence and spread of disease in easy-to-understand, jargon-free language Considers issues relevant to today's readers, including the impact of the anti-vaccination movement, climate change, global travel, and antibiotic resistance Offers a detailed look at the most famous examples of epidemics and pandemics throughout history, using a standardized format that makes finding information quick and easy
From the introduction of gunpowder to the reigning era of nuclear weapons, military technological advances have been at the forefront of change. These changes in weaponry have influenced the outcome of many historical events and the downfall or success of major civilizations. All nations have sought to improve military technologies in the hope of gaining the upper hand in conflict. The developments in guns, cannon technology, warships, tanks, and airborne and space weapons, have been crucial in the ever-changing face of war. While it is inherent in human nature to seek better weapons for survival, the use of this weaponry will continue to make an impact on history. Through careful examination of the science and engineering of these weapons, persons can continue to venture into the field of military weaponry with an outlook towards the future. Through the many advancements made in military weaponry, our civilization is one that continues to change in the face of war. Technological advancements made in this area improve upon current war tactics and often are the basis behind military warfare. Technology has proven to transform history, lending itself to be one of the most powerful assets of the human race. Breakthroughs in military technology prove to be at the forefront of war and in many cases the result of war is directly connected through these advancements. In history, major civilizations have seen their rise or downfall through the elevation of weapon technology. Lee delves into the engineering and science behind major weapons such as: guns, cannons, fighter and stealth aircrafts, various types of missiles, attack helicopters, aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines, main battle tanks and future weapons. He comprises the knowledge behind the weapons along with an understanding of how the weapons are used and applied to modern warfare. By showing how weapons have changed military warfare, he explains the human nature to seek better weapons for survival, protection, and domination of resources.
This book, Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir Munshi, is the most comprehensive, multi-disciplinary studies on Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, widely known as Munshi Abdullah (1796-1854). He was a prominent literary figure and thinker in the Malay world in the 19th century and was also an early 'pioneer' of Singapore.The author, Professor Hadijah Rahmat, has spent more than 25 years studying Munshi Abdullah since her PhD studies in the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, in 1992 to date. This book is covered in two volumes and is based on her research conducted using unexplored primary sources at several missionaries' archives at SOAS, London, Houghton Library, University Harvard, Library of Congress, Leiden University, KITVL, Holland, and the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta.The book consists of numerous academic papers presented at the regional and international seminars, and also published in international journals and as chapters of books. Besides academic papers, the excerpt of play titled Munsyi, sketches, poetry, and song, and interviews by the national media are also included.This book provides new insight into Abdullah's life, backgrounds, writings, his influences and legacies and the reactions and thought provoking views of the western and eastern scholars on Abdullah. The book is indeed the key reference for studies on Munshi Abdullah, Malay literature, and the history of Singapore, Malaysia, and colonialism in Southeast Asia.
An essential starting point for anyone wanting to learn about life in the largest empire in history, this two-volume work encapsulates the imperial experience from the sixteenth to the twenty-first centuries. • Provides primary sources that give voice to the people who ran, opposed, and were subjects of the British Empire • Consolidates the most up-to-date research from established and emerging scholars in the field in many countries and at many institutions • Includes a detailed introduction that succinctly puts the British Empire into historical context • Offers a chronology of events and episodes important to both the rise and fall of the British Empire • Provides a broad range of perspectives that focus not only on the white men who controlled the British Empire but also on the many people—such as women, indigenous peoples, poor Europeans, and Christian missionaries—who formed it • Avoids simplistic assessments of British imperialism as merely "good" or "bad," emanating an objectivity that enables readers to develop their own ideas about the nature of the empire
This unique book presents a nontechnical view of the history of mechanics, from the Big Bang to present day. The impact of mechanics on the evolution of a variety of subjects is vividly illustrated, including astronomy, geology, astrophysics, anthropology, archeology, ancient history, Renaissance art, music, meteorology, modern structural engineering, mathematics, medicine, warfare, and sports. While enormous in scope, the subject matter is covered (with ample photographic support) at a level designed to capture the interest of both the learned and the curious. The book concludes with a creative and thoughtful examination of the current state of mechanics and possibilities for the future of mechanics.
In this book, 50 experts study the lives of U.S. veterans at work, at home, and in American society as they navigate issues regarding health, gender, public service, substance abuse, and homelessness. • Considers the changing demographics of U.S. veterans as compared to previous generations of military personnel • Shows the impact that veterans are having on federal, state, and local government organizations • Describes how servicemembers transition from active duty to veteran status • Includes cross references for ease of use
This comprehensive two-volume encyclopedia examines specific famines throughout history and contains entries on key topics related to food production, security and policies, and famine, giving readers an in-depth look at food crises and their causes, responses to them, and outcomes. • Contributions from professors at West Point, Rutgers University, and other universities and colleges; specialists at nutrition centers, hospitals, and the Population Reference Bureau; and the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) World Food Day participants • Original data, diagrams, photographs, charts, and tables • Illustrations include maps, many designed by the author of the entry or book chapter; and graphics secured from U.S. government source material, UN publications, and historic texts • A "further readings" section accompanies each entry or book chapter • Concluding bibliographies at the end of each volume