The development of the first electronic digital computers in the 1940s signaled the beginning of a new and distinctive type of industry—an industry marked by competition through innovation, and by the large percentage of revenues spent on research and development. Written as a companion volume to Targeting the Computer: Government Support and International Competition, this comprehensive volume provides a new understanding to the complex forces that have shaped the computer industry during the past four decades. Kenneth Flamm identifies the origins of technologies important to the creation of computers and traces the roots of individual technologies to the specific research groups and programs responsible for major advances. He evaluates the impact of these innovations on industrial competition and argues that the emergence of specialization and product differentiation in the 1950s and the compatibility and standards in the mid-1960s were key factors defining this competition. Flamm also identifies the various market strategies adopted in later decades to challenge an industry leader, strategies linked to the entry and exit of individual firms. In addition to the effects of technology and internal industry developments, international competition and national policies on technology, trade, and investment shaped the evolution of this new industry. Flamm documents the role of government support for technology in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan and describes the critical technological and economic links between national and international markets. Finally, he links these strategies, technological trends, and national policies to one another and shows how they continue to influence current developments in the computer industry.
Administrative agencies by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management, and Intergovernmental Relations
For more than 20 years, Network World has been the premier provider of information, intelligence and insight for network and IT executives responsible for the digital nervous systems of large organizations. Readers are responsible for designing, implementing and managing the voice, data and video systems their companies use to support everything from business critical applications to employee collaboration and electronic commerce.
Targeting is the primary method for securing strategic objectives in an armed conflict. Failure to comply with the law of targeting jeopardizes the achievement of those aims. It is therefore essential that all those involved in or studying issues surrounding targeting have an accurate and complete understanding of this area of law. This book offers the definitive and comprehensive statement of all aspects of the law of targeting. It is a 'one-stop shop' that answers all relevant questions in depth. It has been written in an open, accessible yet comprehensive style, and addresses both matters of established law and issues of topical controversy. The text explains the meanings of such terms as 'civilian', 'combatant', and 'military objective'. Chapters are devoted to the core targeting principles of distinction, discrimination, and proportionality, as well as to the relationship between targeting and the protection of the environment and of objects and persons entitled to special protection. New technologies are also covered, with chapters looking at attacks using unmanned platforms and a discussion of the issues arising from cyber warfare. The book also examines recent controversies and perceived ambiguities in the rules governing targeting, including the use of human shields, the level of care required in a bombing campaign, and the difficulties involved in determining whether someone is directly participating in hostilities. This book will be invaluable to all working in this contentious area of law.
The Clan is only good for one thing . . . salvaged parts. • The skills to succeed in 'Mech® combat • Walkthroughs for all campaign missions • Customizing your 'Mechs for general use or specific goals • Strategic information on all weapons and 'Mechs • Detailed maps
The Santa Clara computer and high-technology law journal is dedicated to emerging legal issues in high technology and focuses on legal issues of concern to the computer and high technology industries. The Journal contains articles from distinguished scholars, attorneys, and business leaders in the field of high technology law. Topics include: patents, copyrights, trade secret and trademark law; biotechnology, telecommunications, and environmental legal issues; taxation, technology licensing, and other related business issues.
Contains all of X-Wing plus 60 new missions not covered in the original edition and the contents of the two add-on disks: Imperial Pursuit and B-Wing. The information in this guide is direct from the co-authors, chief mission designers of the game, with an introduction from the game designer.
Tie-Fighter, the sequel to LucasArts' wildly successful X-Wing, is based on the classic Star Wars series. Improved effects and an enhanced storyline could make this an even bigger seller than X-Wing. Features original Star Wars fiction, strategies, secrets, and hundreds of illustrations--including game graphics and stills from the movies.