In May 1998, John Joseph, the first native Pakistani Catholic bishop, shot himself in front of the courthouse where a Christian had been sentenced to death for blasphemy. This book tells the story of the Christians in Pakistan, with Bishop Joseph as its centrepiece. It is an account of outcastes who sought hope through Christianity, but who now find themselves victims of a struggle to define Islam in Pakistan. The majority of Pakistani Christians are descendants of untouchables converted to Christianity in the late 19th century. In Pakistan a minority religion is linked with low status, perpetuating the Indian Hindu caste system even though the Muslim majority has disassociated itself from all things Hindu and Indian. The book also deals with enculturation in the Pakistani church, the rise of native clergy, conflicts between the local church and Rome, the rise of 'fundamentalist' Islam and the position of women in society and church.
Created by foreign Missions during the British Raj, the small Christian community in the Pakistan area has existed for nearly one hundred and fifty years. Due to its low socio-economic and elemental religious background, it has always suffered from an image problem. Under the British Raj, the security and well-being of this community was assured to a very large degree. But with the establishment of Pakistan-a constitutionally Islamic state and society-the circumstances of this small minority have drastically changed. Less than two percent of the population, this minority is being constantly challenged on socio-economic and religious grounds. The Islamic elements in the land are ill-disposed toward it and, every now and then, resort to lawlessness towards members of this small minority. The author of this book has attempted to sharpen awareness of the problems of the Christian minority in Pakistan, and has proposed some steps that might alleviate these problems to a certain degree, including the development and practice of an Islam-reconciled Christianity. The thrust of his argument is that, when one is decidedly weak, and must remain so for the foreseeable future, it is best to acknowledge it and behave accordingly. One cannot safely dwell in the water while being on the wrong side of the crocodile.
Pakistan's original intention of protecting religious minorities from persecution has been eroded by Islamization to the point where its Christian community is now under great pressure. This book reveals the gradual shift in its policy, and offers a warning of what can happen when conservative Islamic voices become politically dominant.
Christian Citizens in an Islamic State deals with the important question of inter-faith relations in Pakistan, a vital region of the Islamic world which has been the scene of the rise of both Islamic militancy and partnership with the West in counter-terrorism measures. Christians are the most important religious minority of Pakistan and their status and experience is a test case of the treatment of religious minorities in an Islamic state. This book covers new ground in exploring the various factors that govern the relations between Muslims and Christians in a nation state which has been politically unstable in the past, and where the imposition of Islamic law has been controversial and problematic for religious minorities. Theodore Gabriel clarifies the history of Christian-Muslim relations in the region, explores the rise of Islamic militancy, and draws on personal interviews to determine the mind set of both Christians and Muslims in Pakistan today.
Originally published in 1954, Christians and Christianity in India and Pakistan is an historical account of Christianity from the time of Apostle Thomas through to contemporary times. The book records the vicissitudes of the Church prior to the Reformation, the work of the early Protestant missions, and the results of British influence. It provides an overview of Christianity in contemporary India and Pakistan, and explores a range of topics including Indian traditions, the labours of Armenians and the missionaries of the West, the political and social position of Indian Christians, and Christian influences on Hinduism. Christians and Christianity in India and Pakistan will appeal to those with an interest in the history of Christianity.
One of the most respected journalists in the United States and the bestselling author of The Future Church uses his unparalleled knowledge of world affairs and religious insight to investigate the troubling worldwide persecution of Christians. From Iraq and Egypt to Sudan and Nigeria, from Indonesia to the Indian subcontinent, Christians in the early 21st century are the world's most persecuted religious group. According to the secular International Society for Human Rights, 80 percent of violations of religious freedom in the world today are directed against Christians. In effect, our era is witnessing the rise of a new generation of martyrs. Underlying the global war on Christians is the demographic reality that more than two-thirds of the world's 2.3 billion Christians now live outside the West, often as a beleaguered minority up against a hostile majority-- whether it's Islamic fundamentalism in the Middle East and parts of Africa and Asia, Hindu radicalism in India, or state-imposed atheism in China and North Korea. In Europe and North America, Christians face political and legal challenges to religious freedom. Allen exposes the deadly threats and offers investigative insight into what is and can be done to stop these atrocities. “This book is about the most dramatic religion story of the early 21st century, yet one that most people in the West have little idea is even happening: The global war on Christians,” writes John Allen. “We’re not talking about a metaphorical ‘war on religion’ in Europe and the United States, fought on symbolic terrain such as whether it’s okay to erect a nativity set on the courthouse steps, but a rising tide of legal oppression, social harassment and direct physical violence, with Christians as its leading victims. However counter-intuitive it may seem in light of popular stereotypes of Christianity as a powerful and sometimes oppressive social force, Christians today indisputably form the most persecuted religious body on the planet, and too often its new martyrs suffer in silence.” This book looks to shatter that silence.
The movement of nation building in Islamic societies away from the secular or Pan-Arab models of the early twentieth century toward a variety of "nationalisms" was accompanied by growing antagonism between the Muslim majority and ethnic or religious minorities. The papers in Nationalism and Minority Identities in Islamic Societies offer a comparative analysis of how these minorities developed their own distinctive identities within the modern Islamic nation-state. The essays focus on identity formation in five minority groups - Copts in Egypt, Baha'is and Christians in Pakistan, Berbers in Algeria and Morocco, and Kurds in Turkey and Iraq. While every minority community is distinctive, the experiences of each show that a state's authoritarian rule, uncompromising attitude towards expressions of particularism, and failure to offer tools for inclusion are all responsible for the politicization and radicalization of minority identities. The place of Islam in this process is complex: while its initial pluralistic role was transformed through the creation of the modern nation-state, the radicalization of society in turn radicalized and politicized minority identities. Minority groups, though at times possessing a measure of political autonomy, remain intensely vulnerable. Contributors include Juan R.I. Cole (University of Michigan), David L. Crawford (Fairfield University), Michael Gunter (Tennessee Technological University), Azzedine Layachi (St John's University), Richard C. Martin (Emory University), Paul S. Rowe (University of Western Ontario), Maya Shatzmiller (University of Western Ontario), Charles D. Smith (University of Arizona), Pieternella van Doorn-Harder (Valparaiso University), the late Linda S. Walbridge (University of Oklahoma), and M. Hakan Yavuz (University of Utah). Announcing the series: Studies in Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict General Editors: Sid Noel and Richard Vernon, co-directors of University of Western Ontario's Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict Research Group. Studies in Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict is a series that examines the political dimensions of nationality in the contemporary world. The series includes both scholarly monographs and edited volumes which consider the varied sources and political expressions of national identities, the politics of multiple loyalty, the domestic and international effects of competing identities within a single state, and the causes of, and political responses to, conflict between ethnic and religious groups. The volumes are designed for use by university students, scholars and interested general readers.
A history of the 1st period of the Christian church in Pakistan from St. Thomas, Ahmadyya, beliefs that Jesus lived and died in Kashmir, Christians in Persia & their migration to Pakistan, & Muslim missionary work.
Digital interactive audio is the future of audio in media OCo most notably video games, but also web pages, theme parks, museums, art installations and theatrical events. Despite its importance to contemporary multi-media, this is the first book that provides a framework for understanding the history, issues and theories surrounding interactive audio. Karen Collins presents the work of academics, composers and sound programmers to introduce the topic from a variety of angles in order to provide a supplementary text for music and multimedia courses. The book offers a fresh perspective on media music, one that will complement film studies, but which will show the necessity of a unique approach when considering games music."
From the bestselling author of Why Catholics Are Right, a new book examining the history, reasoning, theology, and politics behind the great genocidal phenomenon of modern times: the Islamist war on Christianity. Christians are the most persecuted identifiable group on earth. This is not the opinion of some but the informed view of most -- including the United Nations. What is seldom admitted, however, is that the vast majority of the nations that carry out the oppression, intolerance, violence, rape, and murder are Islamic. While Christians suffer in North Korea and parts of India, it is in Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Egypt, Turkey, and even Indonesia and Malaysia where the situation is dark and becoming worse. The statistics and stories are truly terrifying in proportion and degree and as Islam expands and becomes increasingly aggressive, fundamentalist, and confident, Christian minorities live in fear and face a bleak future. Hatred outlines the history of the relationship between Islam and Christianity, explains what Islam actually teaches about the Christian faith, and gives numerous examples of the experience of Christians throughout the Islamic world. It explains not only what happens, but why it happens, and deliberately challenges the comforting but false idea that all of this is somehow an aberration and contrary to Islamic thought.
The notion of Interreligious Studies signals a new academic perspective on the study of religion, characterized by a relational approach. Interreligious Studies defines the essential features of interreligious studies compared with alternative conceptions of religious studies and theology. The book discusses pressing and salient challenges in interreligious relations, including interreligious dialogue in practice and theory, interfaith dialogue and secularity, confrontational identity politics, faith-based diplomacy, the question of interfaith learning in school, and interreligious responses to extremism. Interreligious Studies is a cutting-edge study from one of the most important voices in Europe in the field, Oddbjørn Leirvik, and includes case study material from his native Norway including interreligious responses to the bomb attack in Norway on 22nd July 2011, as well as examples from a number of other national and global contexts Expanding discussions on interreligious dialogue and the relationship between religions in new and interesting ways, this book is a much-needed addition to the growing literature on interreligious studies.
Dr Julius focuses on how Ahmadis and Christians have been affected by Pakistan's blasphemy laws, their reactions to these laws, and why they respond differently. He provides a tool for Christians to understand what it means to be a minority in a hostile culture and presents a way forward for the Christian church.