The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man. Nearly one-half of the Code deals with matters of contract, establishing, for example, the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, establishing the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, for example, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another. A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity and sexual behavior. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official; this provision establishes that a judge who reaches an incorrect decision is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. A handful of provisions address issues related to military service.One nearly complete example of the Code survives today, on a diorite stele in the shape of a huge index finger, 2.25-metre (7.4 ft) tall (see images at right). The Code is inscribed in the Akkadian language, using cuneiform script carved into the stele. It is currently on display in The Louvre, with exact replicas in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, the library of the Theological University of the Reformed Churches (Dutch: Theologische Universiteit Kampen voor de Gereformeerde Kerken) in The Netherlands, the Pergamon Museum of Berlin and the National Museum of Iran in Tehran.Hammurabi ruled for nearly 44 years, c. 1792 to 1750 BC according to the Middle chronology. In the preface to the law, he states, "Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared Marduk, the patron god of Babylon (The Human Record, Andrea & Overfield 2005), to bring about the rule in the land." On the stone slab there are 44 columns and 28 paragraphs that contained 282 laws.The stele was probably erected at Sippar, city of the sun god Shamash, god of justice, who is depicted handing authority to the king in the image at the top of the stele.In 1901, Egyptologist Gustave Jéquier, a member of an expedition headed by Jacques de Morgan, found the stele containing the Code of Hammurabi in what is now Iran (ancient Susa, Elam), where it had been taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC.The Code of Hammurabi was one of several sets of laws in the ancient Near East. The code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that everyone who read the laws would know what was required of them. Earlier collections of laws include the Code of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (c. 2050 BC), the Laws of Eshnunna (c. 1930 BC) and the codex of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (c. 1870 BC), while later ones include the Hittite laws, the Assyrian laws, and Mosaic Law. These codes come from similar cultures in a relatively small geographical area, and they have passages which resemble each other.The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period. The code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law regulating a government — i.e., a primitive constitution. The code is also one of the earliest examples of the idea of presumption of innocence, and it also suggests that both the accused and accuser have the opportunity to provide evidence.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, developed during reigning Hammurabi from c. 1792 BC to c. 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology) of the 1st dynasty of Babylon. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. These 282 case laws include economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce), family law (marriage and divorce), as well as criminal law (assault, theft) and civil law (slavery, debt). Penalties varied according to the status of the offenders and the circumstances of the offenses. One of the best known laws from Hammurabi's code was “eye for an eye” law: §196. If a man has caused the loss of a gentleman’s eye, his eye one shall cause to be lost.
The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses are thousands-years old documents, evidence of the social structure and rules of ancient civilizations. The Code of Hammurabi is roughly one thousand years older than the Ten Commandments, or Laws of Moses, which were written in 1500 B.C., and is considered the oldest set of laws in existence. Promulgated by the king Hammurabi in roughly 2250 B.C., the Code is a set of rules guiding everyday life, listing everything from punishments for stealing and murder to the prices commanded for animals, products, and services. The famous "eye for an eye" maxim comes from the Hammurabi code: "If a man puts out the eye of an equal, his eye shall be put out." W.W. Davies' translation of The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses includes an explanation of the laws and their history, a Prologue by the author, the text of the codes with comments, an Epilogue, and a detailed Index. W.W. DAVIES was one of several translators of the famous Code of Hammurabi and the Law of Moses. Little to no information is known about him other than his work with the ancient text. A professor of Hebrew at Ohio Wesleyan University, Davies's translation was from 1905, published by Jennings and Graham in Cincinnati, Ohio.
This, the earliest known written legal code, was composed about 1780 B.C.E. by Hammurabi, the ruler of Bablyon. This text was excavated in 1901; it was carved on an eight foot high stone monolith. The harsh system of punishment expressed in this text prefigures the concept of 'an eye for an eye'. The Code lays out the basis of both criminal and civil law, and defines procedures for commerce and trade. This text was redacted for 1,500 years, and is considered the predecessor of Jewish and Islamic legal systems alike.
Johns, C.H.W., Translator. The Oldest Code of Laws in the World: The Code of Laws Promulgated by Hammurabi, King of Babylon, B.C. 2285-2242. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1926. xii, 88 pp. Reprinted 2000 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 99-053070. ISBN-13: 978-1-58477-061-9. ISBN-10: 1-58477-061-9. Cloth. $60.* The text, in English, of the Code of Hammurabi, which is the earliest code of laws. Probably issued about 1750 B.C., it includes 282 sections in an ordered arrangement. The index, created by the translator, may be viewed as a digest of the Code itself.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a seven and a half foot stone stele and various clay tablets. The code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man.
Hammurabi's code has been translated into many languages since it's discovery. Most scholars agree this book is an accurate translation. However, considering the span of time between writing the code and its discovery and translation, there always remains the question of absolute accuracy. This code is considered the earliest known written criminal and civil code ever discovered. It is estimated it was written by the King of Babylon, Hammurabi, in approximately 1780 B.C.E. and found in 1901.It identified a system of punishment and foreshadows the 'an eye for an eye' concept. Hammurabi wisely established the foundation for criminal and civil law. He understood the importance of trade and commerce and include regulations relating to those activities.Also presented are the interpretations and findings of Rev. Claude Johns (1900) and Author Mike Rothmiller
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The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes and was proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia