Eminent scholaars of Indian Liguistics have offered insightful articles in honor of Prof. George Cardona, a luminary in the field of Indo-European, Indo-Aryan, and Paninian Studies for the past four decades. Besides Cardona`s bibliography, the volume contains 23 papers in the following areas: 1. Sanskrit Grammatical Theory; 2. Karaka Studies; 3. Historical Studies in Grammatical Traditions; 4. Lexical Studies; 5. Studies in Culture; 6. Modern Indian Languages. This volume represents cutting-edge research in the field of Indian Linguistic and Culture.
Chronology 2,000,000 B.C.E. First Genus Homo Emerges First example of early humanoids emerge in Africa. 1,000,000 B.C.E. Premodern Humans Migrate out of Africa Prehumans move from Africa into West Asia and elsewhere. 100,000 B.C.E. Homo sapiens in East Africa Homo sapiens communities are established in East Africa. 40,000 B.C.E. Paleolithic Era Paleolithic era lasts to about 10,000 when Mesolithic era begins. 7000 B.C.E. Neolithic Era in Fertile Crescent Neolithic societies based on agriculture emerge in the Fertile Crescent, present-day Iraq and Syria. 6000 B.C.E. Neolithic Societies in Europe, Asia, and Western Hemisphere Neolithic cultures spread around the world. 5500 B.C.E. Egyptians Weave Flax into Fabric In Egypt, fl ax threads are woven together to create fabric for the fi rst time. 4400 B.C.E. Horses Domesticated The domestication of horses provides an important new mode of transportation. 3500 B.C.E. Cuneiform Writing The Sumerians, in present-day Iraq, are the fi rst group to develop a written script called cuneiform. Archaeologists have discovered thousands of clay tablets with Sumerian cuneiform writing on them. 3500 B.C.E. Bronze Made Bronze is made for the fi rst time in a process whereby copper is combined with tin to create a new metal that can be used in many tools. 3500 B.C.E. Sumerian Civilization Sumerian civilization, with city-states and agriculture with irrigation systems, is established in the Fertile Crescent. 3250 B.C.E. Paper Made of Papyrus Reed The fi rst known paper is produced in Egypt. 3200. B.C.E. South America Beginnings of complex societies along the northern Peruvian Pacifi c coast. xvii 3200 B.C.E. Hieroglyphic Writing The Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing. This style was gradually replaced by the Greek system. 3050–2890 B.C.E. Egypt’s First Dynasty King Menes creates the fi rst dynasty of Egypt and unites Egypt into a single kingdom, bringing together the two separate Lower and Upper kingdoms. 3000 B.C.E. First Chariots The fi rst known use of wheels for transport occurs in Sumer; they are used both for transport and on early chariots. 2900 B.C.E. Great Pyramid Built The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) at Giza outside present-day Cairo is built around 2900. It takes 4,000 stonemasons and as many as 100,000 laborers to build the pyramid. 2900 B.C.E. Indus Valley Civilization begins in the Indus Valley. Most of the peoples of the Harappan civilization live either near or in the city of Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro. 2700 B.C.E. Epic of Gilgamesh In the Fertile Crescent, the epic poem on the founding of Uruk, the fi rst major city, is created. 2700 B.C.E. Founding of China Chinese mythical ruler Yellow Emperor becomes leader of tribes along the Yellow River plain. Chinese writers accept him as the founder of the Chinese nation. 2700 B.C.E. Early Minoan Culture The Minoan civilization emerges on the island of Crete. 2686–2613 B.C.E. Egypt’s Third Dynasty The Third Dynasty is founded by Pharaoh Djoser. 2613–2498 B.C.E. Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty The Fourth Dynasty is founded by the Pharaoh Sneferu. He builds the pyramid at Dahshur. 2350–2198 B.C.E. Three Emperors of China Period of the mythical Three Emperors—Yao, Shun, and Yu —whose reigns are remembered as a golden age. 2341–2181 B.C.E. Egypt’s Sixth Dynasty During the course of the Sixth Dynasty, the powers of the pharaoh decrease. The growing power of the nobility limits the absolute power of the Egyptian kings. 2340 B.C.E. Sargon, King of Akkad Sargon builds Akkad as the new seat of government and unites all of the Sumerian cities into one centrally organized empire. 2205–1766 B.C.E. Xia Dynasty Founded by Emperor Yu, it is traditionally accepted as China’s fi rst historic dynasty. 2060 B.C.E. Third Dynasty of Ur Founded (Sumeria) Ur-Nammu of Ur seizes power from Utukhegal and creates a new Sumerian dynasty. Under his son Shulgi the empire of Ur extends as far as Anatolia. 2055 B.C.E. Mentuhotep II Reunifi es Egypt After a period of strife between the nobles and the kings known as the First Intermediate Period, King Mentuhotep reunites the kingdom under a new dynasty. 2000 B.C.E. Great Stone Palaces at Knossos The stone palaces at Knossos and Malia are built on Crete at around 2000. 2000 B.C.E. Babylonians Develop Mathematic System The Babylonians develop a mathematical system based on units of 60. They also divide a circle into a 360 units. 2000 B.C.E. Preclassic Period in Maya Zones Permanent settlements mark the emergence of the Early Preclassic Period in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. 1991–1786 B.C.E. Amenemhat I Founds the Middle Kingdom Amenemhat I reduces the power of the nobles and establishes a strong central government. 1900 B.C.E. Cotton Used for Textiles in Asia and Fishnets in Peru Beginning around 1900 b.c.e., the Harappans begin growing and weaving cotton into fabric; Pacifi c Coast polities in central Peru continue growing and weaving cotton into fi shnets, providing a maritime basis for the emergence of Andean civilizations. 1900 B.C.E. Mycenaeans Arrive in Greece Around 1900 b.c.e., the Mycenaeans arrive from the north and gain control of Greece. This is the period of Greek history written about by Homer and known as the Heroic period or Mycenaean age. xviii Chronology 1900 B.C.E. Middle Minoan Culture Minoan culture reaches its high point with the construction of great palaces at Phaistos. 1766–1122 B.C.E. Shang Dynasty The Shang dynasty under Tang the Successful replaces the Xia in 1766. The 30 kings of Shang dynasty rule a largely agricultural society that is established in the Yellow River plain. 1792 B.C.E. Hammurabi Conquers Mesopotamia Hammurabi extends the power of Babylon over all of Mesopotamia and develops fi rst codifi ed law in Hammurabi’s Code. 1720–1570 B.C.E. Hyskos Dynasties XV and XVI Sensing the declining power of the Egyptian dynasties, the Hyksos invade Egypt from Syria-Palestine and establish their capital at Avaris; they rule as if they were Egyptian pharaohs. 1500 B.C.E. Aryans Conquer Harappan Civilization The Harappan civilization declines before 1500 due to natural causes. The weakened Harrappans are quickly conquered by northern invaders from the Eurasian steppes known as Aryans. With it the Vedic age begins. 1500–1000 B.C.E. Early Vedic Age in India Indo-European or Aryan peoples spread across the Indo-Gangetic plains in northern India. 1595 B.C.E. Hittites Conquer Babylon, Introduce Chariot Warfare The Hittites, under the command of King Mursilis, combined with the Kassites, defeat the Babylonian army. 1580 B.C.E. New Kingdom of Egypt The New Kingdom is established by the pharaoh Ahmose who forces the Hyksos out of the Nile Delta in 1570 b.c.e. 1540 B.C.E. Egyptians Defeat Nubians Ahmose subjugates Nubia in present-day Sudan. 1450 B.C.E. Greeks Conquer Minoans After trading with the Minoans for a long period of time, the Mycenaeans conquer them. 1400 B.C.E. Iron Age in Western Asia The use of iron by the Hittites gives them a military advantage. 1375–1360 B.C.E. Akhenaten IV In 1379, Akhenaten IV becomes pharaoh and the Egyptian Empire begins to weaken. 1300 B.C.E. Andean Civilizations Beginnings of complex societies in the Lake Titicaca Basin in the Andean highlands. 1288 B.C.E. Ramses II Fights the Hittites Ramses II fi ghts to regain control of the territory seized by the Hittites. Ramses fi ghts the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh. 1240 B.C.E. Philistine Kingdom Established The Philistines establish themselves in the coastal plain of present-day Israel. 1240–1100 B.C.E. Israelites Established Tradition has it that the Israelites, after escaping from Egypt, establish themselves in Canaan. The Israelites organize into 12 tribes and take control of the land through a combination of military victories and political assimilation. 1200 B.C.E. Olmec Civilization in Mexico and Central America Olmec culture fl ourishes from 1200 to 500 in Mesoamerica. 1186 B.C.E. Ramses III Ramses III of the Twentieth Dynasty, the last powerful pharaoh of Egypt. 1184 B.C.E. Trojan War Legend has it that the Greeks unite under the command of Agamemnon and attack Troy in Asia Minor. After a long siege, the Trojans are forced to submit to the Greeks. 1140 B.C.E. Second Babylonian Empire Begins After an extended period of domination by the Kassites, the second Babylonian empire emerges. 1122–256 B.C.E. Zhou Dynasty in China King Wu defeats the Shang dynasty and establishes the Zhou dynasty. 1122–771 B.C.E. Western Zhou After King Wu’s death, his brother the duke of Zhou consolidates the power of the Zhou dynasty under a feudal system that operates successfully until 771. Chronology xix 1122 B.C.E. First Contact between China and Korea Kija, a Shang prince, and his followers, fl eeing the Zhou conquerors, establish several settlements in Korea. 1100 B.C.E. Development of Phoenician Alphabet Phoenicians inherit a script of consonants and add vowels to form a basis for an alphabet. 1100 B.C.E. Hallstatt Culture Iron is used for the fi rst time in Austria. From Austria the use of iron spreads throughout Europe. 1090 B.C.E. Nubia Becomes Independent With the breakup of the New Kingdom, Nubia once again becomes independent of Egypt. 1090 B.C.E. New Kingdom Dissolved The end of the New Kingdom coincides with the end of the Ramesid dynasty, and Egypt enters a long period of turmoil. 1070 B.C.E. Collapse of Assyria The Assyrian Empire collapses under the assault of Aramaeans and Babylonians. 1050 B.C.E. Chavín Culture in Peru Chavín civilization begins to extend over Peru. 1010 B.C.E. King Saul Saul, the fi rst king of the Israelites, is killed by the Philistines and succeeded by King David. 1000 B.C.E. Middle Preclassic in Maya Zones End of the Early Preclassic period and beginning of the Middle Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. 995 B.C.E. King David Captures Jerusalem King David captures the Jebusite city of Jerusalem and makes the city the capital. 945–730 B.C.E. Libyans Rule Egypt About 945, Libyan settlers, under Shishak, seize control of Egypt and found the Twenty-second Dynasty. 922 B.C.E. King Solomon King Solomon reigns from 961 to 922. During his reign, he consolidates the kingdom of Israel. 900 B.C.E. Etruria The Etruscans spread in Italy, taking control and forming a loosely connected league of cities. 814 B.C.E. Carthage Founded Phoenicians, from present-day Lebanon, create a colony at Carthage, in present-day Tunisia, and it becomes an important world power in its own right. 800–300 B.C.E. Upanishads Written Indian ascetics write a collection of 108 essays on philosophy that are incorporated into Hindu teachings. 800 B.C.E. Chavín Culture in Peru Chavín culture complex emerges in Peruvian Central Highlands and central Pacifi c coast regions. 780–560 B.C.E. Greek Colonies Established The Greeks establish a series of colonies in Asia Minor. 776 B.C.E. First Olympic Games Sacred truces among the Greek city-states allow the gathering of athletes for regular competitions. 770–256 B.C.E. Eastern Zhou The Zhou capital at Hao is destroyed by invading northern tribesmen. A new capital is established to the east at Luoyang, starting the Eastern Zhou period. 753 B.C.E. Rome Founded Tradition has it that Rome was founded in 753; its founder is Romulus, said to be the son of a princess of Alba Longa. 747–716 B.C.E. Kushite Conquests in Egypt The Kushite ruler Piy moves down the Nile from present-day Sudan and conquers large parts of Egypt, including Thebes and Memphis. 722 B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel Falls After a three-year siege, Samaria (the capital of Israel) falls to the Assyrians, who take some 20,000 Israelites into slavery. 707–696 B.C.E. Kushite Dynastic Rule over Egypt King Shabako establishes rule over Egypt and adopts many old Egyptian customs. 660 B.C.E. Empire of Japan Established According to legend, Jimmu Tenno invades Japan’s main island Honshu. There he establishes himself as Japan’s fi rst emperor. He creates the Yamato family xx Chronology and is believed to be a direct ancestor of Japan’s current emperor. 650–630 B.C.E. Second Messenian War The Messenians led by Aristomenes revolt against Sparta; after 20 years, Sparta subdues the rebellion and reorganizes itself into a military state. 650 B.C.E. Assyrians Destroy Babylon An attempted revolt against the Assyrians by the Babylonians results in the destruction of Babylon. 626 B.C.E. Chaldean Empire Founded by Nabopolasser The Chaldeans take control of Babylon and establish a new dynasty. 621 B.C.E. Greek Lawgiver Draco Athens is ruled by an oligarchy, but a nobleman, Draco, is appointed to create a code of laws. 612 B.C.E. Nineveh Captured and Assyrian Empire Ends Nineveh, the capital of Babylon, is captured by a coalition of armies. The seizure of Nineveh is followed by the capture of Harran in 610, ending the Assyrian Empire. 600–300 B.C.E. Hundred Schools of Philosophy in China All China’s classical schools of philosophy develop during this era of political division as the Eastern Zhou kings lose power. 594 B.C.E. Solon Becomes Archon Athens experiences a period of social and political upheaval and Solon, an esteemed Athenian, is appointed ruler of Athens. 588 B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem; Babylonian Captivity Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian army takes Jerusalem, destroys the Jewish Temple, and takes many Jews into captivity. He builds the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 566 B.C.E. Gautama Buddha Prince Siddhartha founds Buddhism, which rejects the Vedic Hindu caste system and the Vedas. 560 B.C.E. Peisistratus Rules Athens Following the resignation of Solon, Athens is governed by a group of leaders. One of them is Peisistratus, who makes three attempts to seize power, fi nally succeeding on the third attempt. 559 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great Cyrus declares himself king of both Persia and Media. 558 B.C.E. Zoroastrianism Is Founded Zoroaster begins his work as a prophet for the religion of the Persians. 550 B.C.E. Laozi and Daoism Laozi is the mythical founder of philosophy Daoism and reputed author of its classic the Daodejing. 540–468 B.C.E. Mahavira Founds Jainism Jainism is an extremely ascetic religion that offers an alternative to Vedism-Hinduism. 539 B.C.E. Cyrus Takes Jerusalem Cyrus allows the Jews who had been conquered by the Babylonians to return to Jerusalem after his defeat of the Babylonians. 525 B.C.E. Persians Conquer Egypt The end of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty when the last pharaoh is defeated by King Cambyses II of Persia. 521 B.C.E. Darius Cyrus is succeeded by Darius I in 521. Darius spends the fi rst years of his administration suppressing revolts that develop throughout the empire. Darius reorganizes the Persian Empire into separate provinces, or satraps, each with its own governor and tax system. 516 B.C.E. Darius Invades Indus Valley Darius invades India, capturing the Indus Valley, which is annexed to the Persian Empire. 509 B.C.E. Roman Republic Founded The Roman Republic is founded, and Junius Brutus and Tarquinius serve as the fi rst consuls of Rome. 508 B.C.E. Athenian Democracy Established by Cleisthenes Cleisthenes is appointed ruler, enacts fundamental reforms that become the basis of the golden age of Athens, and creates the assembly made up of Athenian males. 499 B.C.E. Greek City-States Revolt The Ionian Greek city-states in Asian Minor revolt against Persian rule. Chronology xxi 490 B.C.E. Battle of Marathon The army of Athens and its allies meet the Persians on the plains of Marathon, about 22 miles from Athens. The decisive Greek victory at Marathon ends the immediate Persian threat. 480 B.C.E. Thermopylae and Salamis The Persians’ quest for world domination is stopped for the second time, allowing the fl owering of Greek civilization, especially in Athens. 479 B.C.E. Founding of Confucianism Confucius—China’s greatest philosopher—founds the school of Confucianism, which becomes China’s state philosophy in the second century b.c.e. 470–391 B.C.E. Moism Is Founded Moism, a school of philosophy, is founded by Mozi. It fl ourishes during the Hundred Schools era in China and subsequently dies out. 460 B.C.E. Age of Pericles The age of Pericles lasts from 461 (when Pericles becomes the dominant politician in Athens) until 429. It is a period of expanding democracy at home and increasing imperialism abroad. 431–404 B.C.E. Peloponnesian War For 27 years, Athens and Sparta engage in warfare. The war ends with a Spartan victory. 429 B.C.E. Hippocratic Oath Named after the famous Greek physician, the oath is still taken by contemporary physicians. 400 B.C.E. Andean Civilizations Decline of Chavín culture complex in Central Highlands and central Pacifi c coast and the rise of Pukará polities in northern Titicaca Basin. 400 B.C.E. Late Preclassic in Maya Zones The end of the Middle Preclassic period and beginning of the Late Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. 400 B.C.E. Decline of the Kush Kushite kingdom with capital at Meroë, in present-day Sudan, begins to decline. 399 B.C.E. Socrates Dies Socrates, the foremost Greek philosopher, who taught Plato, author of the Republic, dies. Their work had a major impact on Western thought. 390 B.C.E. Axum Kingdom in East Africa Axum kingdom based in Ethiopia expands its rule and ultimately defeats the Kushite kingdom. 371 B.C.E. Battle at Leuctra Sparta is defeated at the Battle of Leuctra by Epaeminondas of Thebes. The defeat shatters the myth of Spartan invincibility and ends Sparta’s hegemony over Greece. 359 B.C.E. Philip II Philip II becomes regent of Macedonia and reorganizes the army to make it one of the strongest in Greece. 334 B.C.E. Alexander the Great Alexander the Great leads a Greek army of 35,000 soldiers into battle against the Persian army led by Darius III at Granicus. Alexander’s troops gain the upper hand and kill or capture half of the Persian army, which is forced to retreat. 331 B.C.E. Battle of Gaugamela Darius III and the Persian Empire make a fi nal stand in October 331 at Gaugamela near Arbela in the heart of Assyria. Nearly 1 million men face an army of 50,000 Macedonians under Alexander. Forced to fl ee the battlefi eld, Darius is pursued and eventually assassinated, thereby ending the Persian Empire. 330 B.C.E. Reforms of Shang Lord Shang becomes chief minister of the state of Qin in China and begins to implement legalism as its state philosophy. 326 B.C.E. Mauryan Empire The Maurya dynasty is founded in India by Chandragupta Maurya. It will unite most of the Indian subcontinent plus Afghanistan. 321 B.C.E. Ptolemy Ptolemy, ruler of Egypt, defeats Antigonus at the Battle of Gaza. Ptolemy is supported by Seleucus, who goes on to reconquer Babylonia. 300 B.C.E. Yayoi Culture in Japan This neolithic culture replaces the more primitive Jomon culture. 300 B.C.E. Euclid Publishes Elements The Greek mathematician Euclid, living in Alexandria, publishes a 13-volume work called Elements that lays out, for the fi rst time, the principles of geometry. xxii Chronology 300 B.C.E. Bantus in Western Africa Bantus in western Africa use iron implements, skills perhaps gained from Kushites. 269–232 B.C.E. Mauryan Empire Ashoka expands the Mauryan Empire of India to its maximum. He converts to Buddhism and convenes the third Buddhist Council. 265–241 B.C.E. First Punic War The First Punic War is fought between Rome and Carthage over claims to Sicily. 245 B.C.E. Third Syrian War The Third Syrian War starts when Ptolemy III’s sister is killed by his former wife. Ptolemy responds by invading the Seleucid Empire, advancing all the way to Bactria. 240 B.C.E. Archemides Shows Value of Pi Archemides, the Greek mathematician, is the fi rst to determine the value of pi. He also successfully calculates the area of a circle. 218–201 B.C.E. Second Punic War Carthage and Rome fi ght a 17-year war. It takes place in both Italy, which is attacked by Hannibal, and then Carthage. Rome is victorious. 221 B.C.E. Qin State Unifi es China Qin state in northwestern China establishes a national dynasty and begins imperial age in Chinese history. 216 B.C.E. First Macedonian War The fi rst Macedonian War breaks out when Philip V of Macedonia invades Illyria. The Romans use their superior naval forces to stop the Macedonians. 209 B.C.E. Maotun Unites Xiongnu Tribes The Xiongnu nomadic tribes will become dominant in the steppes and formidable foes of China for the next three centuries. 206 B.C.E. Xiang Yu Attempts to Unify China With the end of the Qin dynasty, Xiang emerges as the strongest contender for leadership of China. He is defeated by Liu Bang in 202 b.c.e. 202 B.C.E. Han Dynasty in China Founded by commoner Liu Bang, the Han consolidates the imperial tradition begun in the Qin dynasty. 200 B.C.E. Bantu Migrations in Africa Bantu migrations from western Africa into central and southern Africa begin and last for several hundred years; Bantus are largely agriculturalists. 195 B.C.E. Wei Man Establishes Kingdom in North Korea Wei Man fl ees China with followers and sets up rule centered at Pyongyang in Korea. His family rules until China annexes northern Korea in 109 b.c.e. 195–180 B.C.E. Empress Lu of China Wife of Liu Bang, she rules as regent after his death; she attempts but fails to establish her own dynasty. 149 B.C.E. Third Punic War The Roman army lands at Carthage and lays siege to the city. After a three-year siege, the Romans capture Carthage and destroy the city. 149–148 B.C.E. Fourth Macedonian War The Macedonians led by Andricus rebel against Roman rule. The Romans defeat the Macedonians and make Macedonia a province of Rome. 144 B.C.E. Aqueducts in Rome The Romans develop an extensive aqueduct system to bring water to Rome. 141–87 B.C.E. Han Wudi His reign sees successful Chinese offensives against the Xiongnu and the beginning of Chinese dominance of Central Asia. The Silk Road fl ourishes and Confucianism becomes China’s state ideology. 138 B.C.E. Zhang Qian “discovers” Central Asia for China His epic journeys leads to Chinese interest in Central Asia and East-West trade via the Silk Road. 111 B.C.E. Annam Conquered by Han China Annam (North Vietnam) comes under Chinese political rule and cultural infl uence. 108 B.C.E. Northern Korea Conquered by Han China It comes under Chinese political rule and cultural infl u ence. 100 B.C.E. Nabatean City of Petra Nabateans, an Arab tribe, establish a thriving commercial state at Petra in present-day southern Jordan. Chronology xxiii 91–88 B.C.E. Social War The Social War breaks out when Italians who are not citizens of the Roman Empire revolt. 87 B.C.E. Sima Qian completes The Historical Records Sima Qian writes the complete history of the Chinese world up to his time, which becomes the exemplar of later Chinese historical writing. 82 B.C.E. Consul Sulla Enters Rome Consul Sulla returns to Rome after subduing opponents of Roman rule. Sulla is elected dictator of Rome. 73 B.C.E. Third Servile War The most famous slave revolt, known as the Third Servile War, is led by the slave Spartacus, a gladiator; Spartacus and his men seize Mount Vesuvius, and thousands of slaves fl ock to his support. 69 B.C.E. Cleopatra Cleopatra reigns as queen of Egypt from 69 to 30 b.c.e. 65 B.C.E. Pompey’s Conquest Roman forces under Pompey defeat Mithridates VI, king of Pontus. Pompey forces Mithridates to fl ee to the eastern Black Sea region and then to Armenia. 60 B.C.E. Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Marcus Crassus form the fi rst triumvirate to rule Rome. 57 B.C.E. Caesar Defeats Tribes Julius Caesar defeats the Celtic Helvetica tribes from what is present-day Switzerland at Bibracate in present- day France. 55 B.C.E. Caesar Invades Britain Caesar leads Roman troops across the Straits of Dover and returns to England the next year with a larger force to defeat the Catuvellauni and establish Roman sovereignty over parts of England. 50 B.C.E. Kingdoms of Korea Founded The kingdoms of Korea are founded around 50 b.c.e. There are the Koguryo in the north, Silla in the southeast, and Pakche in the southwest. 49 B.C.E. Caesar Crosses the Rubicon Julius Caesar and his army cross the Rubicon in northern Italy. By crossing the Rubicon, Caesar defi es the Senate and is guilty of treason. Pompey is forced to fl ee as Roman soldiers fl ock to Caesar, who successfully gains control of all Italy. 44 B.C.E. Caesar Assassinated Caesar is assassinated by a group of Roman senators that includes Marcus Brutus. The death of Caesar is followed by a power struggle between Mark Antony and Octavian. 43 B.C.E. Cicero Assassinated Cicero, the great Roman orator, denounces Antony. In retaliation, Antony orders the assassination of Cicero. 42 B.C.E. Antony Defeats Cassius Mark Antony battles the forces of Cassius at Philippi. Cassius is defeated and commits suicide. Twenty days later, forces under Brutus are also defeated, and Brutus commits suicide. 37 B.C.E. Herod the Great Herod the Great is recognized by the Roman Senate as king of Judaea. The Hasmonean dynasty that had ruled Judaea until this period allies themselves with the Parthians, who are defeated by Mark Antony’s forces. 31 B.C.E. Battle of Actium Mark Antony and Octavian fi ght a naval battle at Actium off Epirus in western Greece. Although the battle is decisive, Antony and his love, Cleopatra, fl ee to Egypt, where Antony’s army surrenders. Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves soon after. 27 B.C.E. Octavian Octavian becomes the “Augustus,” and the era of the Roman Empire begins. C.E. The Common Era begins with the birth of Jesus Christ, although Jesus probably is born between 7 and 4 b.c.e. 6 C.E. Herod Deposed Herod Archelaus is deposed by the Roman emperor Augustus. 9 C.E. German Tribes Destroy Roman Legions Three Roman legions are defeated by a German army led by Ariminus, thereby ensuring German independence from Rome. 9 C.E. Xin Dynasty Wang Mang usurps the Han throne, ending the Western Han dynasty and establishes the Xin dynasty. xxiv Chronology 18 C.E. Red Eyebrow Rebellion Peasant rebellion in China contributes to the downfall of Wang Mang’s usurpation. 25–220 C.E. Eastern Han Dynasty After the death of Wang Mang, the Han dynasty is restored, called the Eastern Han. 30 or 33 C.E. Jesus Crucifi ed Jesus Christ is put to death by the Romans in Jerusalem. 39 C.E. Revolt of Trung Sisters Unsuccessful revolt of Annam (North Vietnam) from Chinese rule. 64 C.E. Rome Burns The city of Rome is nearly destroyed in a catastrophic fi re. The fi re is said to have been set by the emperor Nero. 66 C.E. Judaea Rebels against Rome A rebellion breaks out in Jerusalem against Roman rule. The Romans dispatch an army from Syria to quell the revolt, but it is destroyed on the way to Jerusalem. 68 C.E. Year of the Four Emperors Four separate emperors rule Rome. 70 C.E. Jerusalem Falls Titus succeeds in capturing Jerusalem; he burns Jerusalem, killing or selling into slavery tens of thousands of Jews. 78 C.E. Kushan Empire The Kushan dynasty is established by King Kanishka. It extends from Afghanistan to the Indus Valley and is the melting pot of Greco-Roman, Persian, and Indian cultures. 79 C.E. Mount Vesuvius Explodes Mount Vesuvius erupts, destroying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. 96–180 C.E. Five Good Emperors Starting with Emperor Marcus Nerva, Rome is ruled by fi ve individuals who become known as the Good Emperors. 100 C.E. Emergence of Moche Culture in Peru Moche culture, which is hierarchical with warriorpriest kings, emerges in Peru and fl ourishes until approximately 700 c.e. 100 C.E. Terminal Preclassic Period in Maya Zones The end of the Late Preclassic period and beginning of the Terminal Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. 122 C.E. Hadrian’s Wall Is Built The Roman emperor Hadrian orders the construction of a defensive wall stretching 70 miles across northern England to keep out the Scottish tribes. 132 C.E. Bar Kokhba Revolt The Jews of Jerusalem rise up in rebellion in 132 after the Romans build a temple to Jupiter on the site of the Jewish Temple. The revolt is led by Simon bar Kokhba and Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph but is ultimately crushed. 167 C.E. German Tribes Invade Northern Italy The German tribes cross the Danube River and attack the Roman Empire. 180 C.E. Marcus Aurelius Dies Marcus Aurelius dies and is succeeded by his son, Commodus. Commodus is the fi rst emperor since Domitian to succeed by virtue of birth, rather than by assassination. 184 C.E. Revolt of the Yellow Turbans A peasant revolt in China contributes to the fall of the Eastern Han dynasty. 200 C.E. Teotihuacán in Mexico Teotihuacán, a vast urban center with pyramids and public buildings in Mexico, fl ourishes to c. 600. 220 C.E. Han Dynasty ends Last Han emperor is forced to abdicate. 220–265 C.E. Three Kingdoms in China Era of wars between three regional states—Wei, Shu Han, and Wu—for control of China. 250 C.E. Early Classic Period in Maya Zones Beginning of the Early Classic Period in the highlands and lowlands of the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. 265–589 C.E. Period of Division Northern China is ruled after 317 by nomadic dynasties of Turkic ethnicity, while southern China remains with ethnic Chinese dynasties. Buddhism is dominant in both north and south. Chronology xxv 267 C.E. Queen Zenobia Rules Palmyra Zenobia rules rich trading entrepôt at Palmyra in northeastern present-day Syria and fi ghts against Roman domination until her defeat in 272. 300 C.E. Axum Kingdom in East Africa Axum kingdom rules Ethiopia and later much of present- day Sudan after defeating Kushites; under King ‘Ezana, Ethiopia becomes a Christian country. 320 C.E. Gupta Dynasty The Gupta Empire is founded by Chandragupta I. Under his successor the Gupta Empire extends to include all of northern India. 324 C.E. Constantine the Great Constantine the Great initiates a civil war of succession against his potential rivals for the throne. In a series of engagements that culminates in 324 at the Battle of Adrianople (in present-day Turkey), Constantine defeats his rivals and becomes the undisputed emperor of all Rome. 330 C.E. Byzantium Constantine the Great dedicates his new capital at Byzantium, renamed after himself as Constantinople. 337 C.E. Roman Empire Divides Constantine dies, and the empire is divided with the Western Roman Empire governed from Rome and the Eastern Roman Empire governed by Constantinople. 357 C.E. Battle of Argentoratum At the Battle of Argentoratum in 357, the Roman general Julian drives the Franks from Gaul, thus reestablishing the Rhine as the frontier of the empire. 376–415 C.E. Chandragupta II India reaches its golden classical age. Both Buddhism and Hinduism fl ourish. 376 C.E. Ostrogoths Invaded The Huns, a nomadic Mongol people, sweep in from Asia and defeat the Ostrogoth Empire. 378 C.E. Valens Killed by Visigoths After their defeat by the Huns, the Visigoths seek refuge in the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Valens gives them permission to cross the Danube as long as they agree to disarm, but the Visigoths are mistreated by Roman offi cials and revolt. 405–411 C.E. Fa Xian Travels to India Chinese Buddhist monk travels to India, records Gupta culture, and returns to China with Buddhist manuscripts. 407 C.E. Romans Withdraw from Britain Western Roman Emperor Honorius withdraws his troops from Britain. 410 C.E. Rome Sacked by Visigoths After a decade of battles, the Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome in 410. 439 C.E. Carthage Captured by Vandals The Roman city of Carthage is captured by Vandals under the command of Genseric, who makes Carthage his capital. 441 C.E. First Saxon Revolt The fi rst Saxon revolt against native Britons occurs in 441. 451 C.E. Attila the Hun Defeated Attila faces the Visigoths and Romans together in the Battle of Chalons (Châlons). Attila is defeated and forced to withdraw. 455 C.E. Saxons Crushs Britons At the Battle of Aylesford in Kent, England, the Saxons led by Hengst and Horsa defeat the Britons. This battle is an important step in the Saxon conquest of Britain. 455 C.E. Vandals Sack Rome The Vandals attack and invade Rome. 476 C.E. Western Roman Empire Ends The Western Roman Empire ends after Emperor Romulus Augustulus is deposed by German mercenaries at Ravenna. The German mercenaries then declare themselves rulers of Italy. 486 C.E. Roman Occupation of Gaul Ends The last Roman emperor of France is defeated by Clovis I, king of the Salian Franks, and Clovis establishes the Kingdom of the Franks. 488 C.E. Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy Theodoric I (the Great) invades northern Italy at the request of the Byzantine emperor. He conquers Italy and establishes the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. xxvi Chronology 500 C.E. Ghanaian Kingdom in West Africa The Ghanaian kingdom in western Africa rises to power and reaches its apogee of power in 1050. 500 C.E. Svealand The fi rst Swedish state, Svealand, is founded around 500. The Goths inhabit the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Much of what is known about early Sweden is taken from the epic Beowulf, written in 700 C.E. 500 C.E. Introduction of Zero Indian mathematicians revolutionize arithmetic by introducing zero (0) to number systems. 503–557 C.E. Persian-Roman Wars Between 503 and 557, three successive wars—interrupted by periods of peace—are fought between the Persian Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. In 567 a peace is reached under which Rome agrees to pay the Persians 30,000 pieces of gold annually, the borders between the empires are reaffi rmed, Christian worship is to be protected in the Persian Empire, and regulations regarding trade and diplomatic relations are delineated. 507 C.E. Kingdom of Franks Clovis defeats the Visigoths under Alaric II at the Battle of Vouille. The Visigoths retreat into Spain, where they retain their empire. 530 C.E. Western Monasticism Saint Benedict formulates his rule, enabling monasteries in Europe to preserve treasures of civilization as the Roman Empire decays. 532 C.E. Nika Revolt A popular uprising against the emperor Justinian occurs in Constantinople, but the emperor, with the support of Empress Theodora, crushes the revolt. 537 C.E. Hagia Sophia Basilica Built The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is completed. The basilica represents the apogee of Byzantine architecture. It was later made into a mosque by the Ottomans in 1450. 550 C.E. Gupta Empire Ends India is disrupted by rebels and Huna invaders. 552 C.E. Battle at Taginae The Byzantine army invades Italy and defeats the Ostrogoths using a combination of pikes and bows. 552 C.E. Buddhism Introduced to Japan Buddhist missionaries from Korea reach Japan and begin to infl uence the Yamato court. 558–650 C.E. The Avars The Avars, a Turkish Mongolian group, form an empire that extends from the Volga to the Hungarian plains. In 626, they lay siege to Constantinople but are forced to withdraw. 565 C.E. Justinian the Great Justinian the Great dies in 565, bringing to an end 38 years of rule as leader of the Byzantine Empire. Under his stewardship, the empire expands to include all of North Africa and parts of the Middle East as well as Italy and Greece. Under Justinian, the fi rst comprehensive compilation of Roman law is issued, known as Justinian’s Code. 572 C.E. Leovigild, King of Visigoths Leovigild, king of the Visigoths, reinvigorates the empire and extends Visigoth dominance over all of the Iberian Peninsula. 581 C.E. Sui Dynasty Reunites China After nearly four centuries of internal divisions and strife, China reunites under the leadership of Yang Jian under the Sui dynasty. Yang uses Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism to help unite the realm. 598 C.E. Pope Greogory Obtains 30-Year Truce Gregory the Great is the fi rst monk to become pope; he controls the civil affairs of Rome and expands the power of the church. Gregory also negotiates a 30- year truce with the Lombards to ensure the independence of Rome. Chronology
The most comprehensive guide to the botany, pharmacology, cultural, ritual, and personal use of erotically stimulating substances from antiquity to the present day • Details the use, preparation, and dosage of more than 400 plant, animal, mineral, and synthetic substances, both common and exotic, as well as their botany, science, and legal status • Explores the historical and present use of aphrodisiacs and their role in sexual practices, culture, and art • Richly illustrated throughout with more than 800 color photographs The culmination of more than 30 years of cultural, anthropological, and scientific research, this encyclopedia examines the botany, pharmacology, history, preparation, dosage, and practical use of more than 400 erotically stimulating substances from antiquity to the present day. From plants and animals that enhance fertility and virility, like celery, snails, or oysters, to substances that induce arousal, like ephedra, opium, or cannabis, the encyclopedia is richly illustrated with more than 800 color photographs--many of which are from the authors’ extensive fieldwork around the world. Exploring individual, medicinal, and ritual use through historic and contemporary artwork, personal accounts, and literature as well as ayurvedic, tantric, shamanic, and European folklore practices and recent pharmacological research, the authors look at the revolving cycle of acceptance and condemnation of aphrodisiacs, the qualities that incur the label of “aphrodisiac,” the role of mind and setting, and the different ways aphrodisiacs stimulate desire--either physically, through the senses and vital organs, or mentally, through heightened awareness and altered consciousness. This comprehensive guide reveals these “remedies of the love goddess” as holy remedies whose proper use can help reestablish harmony with oneself, one’s partner, and the universe.
Follow one family struggling with infidelity and other life crises through a series of psychotherapy sessions that help them find deeper love and wholeness. Dr. Witt draws from his extensive background as a clinician and educator as he integrates the seminal theoretical work of Ken Wilber, David Deida, and many others with his own. The result is a synthesis that is thought provoking, detailed, and clinically invaluable. Therapists and anyone else interested in the human psyche and relationships will deeply benefit from this book. Marlene Roberts is the cofounder of the Anapamu Counseling center, and is a psychotherapist, hypnotherapist, and teacher.
The Complete Kamasutra THE WORLD´S OLDEST AND MOST WIDELY READ GUIDE to the pleasures and techniques of sex, the Kama Sutra was compiled in the fourth century A.D. by a Brahmin and religious scholar named Vatsyayana, who worked from texts dating b
Designed for courses in human sexuality found in departments of psychology, health, biology, nursing, physical education, sociology and anthropology, this text provides a comprehensive introduction to human sexuality as it relates to basic human needs.