Law

The Criminology of Criminal Law

Author: Freda Adler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 535

View: 630

Criminology has developed strong methodological tools over the past decades, establishing itself as a competitive, sophisticated, and independent social science. Despite, and perhaps because of, its emphasis on matters of design, methodology, and quantitative analysis, criminology has had few significant advances in theory. Advances in Criminological Theory is the first series exclusively dedicated to the dissemination of original work on criminological theory. It was created to overcome the neglect of theory construction and validation in existing criminological publications, as well as to further the free exchange of ideas, propositions, and postulates. The Criminology of Criminal Law, the eighth volume in this landmark series, considers the relation between criminal law and theories of crime, criminality, and justice. This book contains chapters on a wide range of topics, including: the way in which white-collar crime is defined; new perspectives on stranger violence; the reasons why criminologists have neglected the study of genocide; the idea of boundary crossings in the control of deviance; the relation between punishment and social solidarity; the connection between the notion of justice and modern sentencing theory; the social reaction to treason; and the association between politics and punitiveness. Contributors to this volume include: Bonnie Berry, Don Gottfredson, David F. Greenberg, Marc Riedel, Jason Rourke, Kip Schlegel, Vered Vinitzky-Seroussi, Leslie T. Wilkins, Marvin E. Wolfgang, and Richard A. Wright. The Criminology of Criminal Law concludes with an analysis of the results of a study on the most cited scholars in Advances in Criminological Theory. This fascinating work will be beneficial to the studies of criminologists, sociologists, and scholars of legal studies.
Social Science

Resisting Punitiveness in Europe?

Author: Sonja Snacken

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 724

This volume provides an important and exciting contribution to the knowledge on punishment across Europe. Over the past decade, punitiveness has been studied through analyses of ‘increased’ or ‘new’ forms of punishment in western countries. Comparative studies on the other hand have illustrated important differences in levels of punitiveness between these countries and have tried to explain these differences by looking at risk and protective factors. Covering both quantitative and qualitative dimensions, this book focuses on mechanisms interacting with levels of punitiveness that seem to allow room for less punitive (political) choices, especially within a European context: social policies, human rights and a balanced approach to victim rights and public opinion in constitutional democracies. The book is split into three sections: Punishment and Welfare. Chapters look into possible lessons to be learned from characteristics and developments in Scandinavian and some Continental European countries. Punishment and Human Rights. Contributions analyze how human rights in Europe can and do act as a shield against – but sometimes also as a possible motor for – criminalization and penalization. Punishment and Democracy. The increased political attention to victims’ rights and interests and to public opinion surveys in European democracies is discussed as a possible risk for enhanced levels of punitiveness in penal policies and evaluated against the background of research evidence about the wishes and expectations of victims of crime and the ambivalence and ‘polycentric consistency’ of public opinion formations about crime and punishments. This book will be a valuable addition to the literature in this field and will be of interest to students, scholars and policy officials across Europe and elsewhere.
Social Science

Measuring Crime and Criminality

Author: John MacDonald

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 403

View: 818

Measuring Crime and Criminality focuses on how different approaches to measuring crime and criminality are used to test existing criminological theories. Each chapter reviews a key approach for measuring criminal behaviour and discusses its strengths or weaknesses for explaining the facts of crime or answers to central issues of criminological inquiry. The book describes the state of the field on different approaches for measuring crime and criminality as seen by prominent scholars in the field. Among the featured contributions are: The Use of Official Reports and Victimization Data for Testing Criminological Theories; The Design and Analysis of Experiments in Criminology; and Growth Curve/Mixture Models for Measuring Criminal Careers. Also included are papers titled: Counterfactual Methods of Causal Inference and Their Application to Criminology; Measuring Gene-Environment Interactions in the Cause of Antisocial Behaviour and What Has Been Gained and Lost through Longitudinal Research and Advanced Statistical Models? This volume of Advances in Criminological Theory illustrates how understanding the various ways criminal behaviour is measured is useful for developing theoretical insights on the causes of crime.
History

Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law, 2nd Edition [3 volumes]

Author: Gregg Lee Carter

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 1096

View: 638

Thoroughly updated and greatly expanded from its original edition, this three-volume set is the go-to comprehensive resource on the legal, social, psychological, political, and public health aspects of guns in American life. • 450 alphabetically organized entries, including 100 new for this edition, covering key issues (suicide, video games and gun violence, firearm injury statistics) and events (workplace shootings, the Virginia Tech massacre) • 102 expert contributors from all academic fields involved in studying the causes and effects of gun violence • A chronology of pivotal moments and controversies in the history of firearm ownership and use in the United States • An exhaustive bibliography of print and online resources covering all aspects of the study of guns in the United States • Appendices on federal gun laws, state gun laws, and pro- and anti-gun-control organizations
Social Science

Beyond Empiricism

Author: Joan McCord

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 990

Beyond Empiricism expands the discourse on theories of criminal behavior. It considers institutional, social, and individual issues related to criminal behavior, while individually each raises questions about the adequacy of current theoretical claims. The topics have significant implications both for policy and research in criminology. Per-Olof Wikstrom introduces a cross-level action theory of crime. He suggests that better understanding of causal mechanisms can lead to a situational theory of action based on perception of alternatives and the process of choice. David Wolcott and Steven Schlossman provide new perspectives on the issues of racial disparity and the incarceration of adolescents in adult prisons. These authors highlight gaps in our understanding of early twentieth-century juvenile justice and negate some popular claims about recent changes in the criminal law. Peter Grabosky spotlights privatization policies in the criminal justice system, suggesting a framework for analyzing the balance of advantage resulting from three basic forms of institutional relationships in policing. Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld discuss why institutional analysis has been seriously underdeveloped in etiological analyses of crime. Jordan Pederson and Matthew Shane scrutinize the concept of aggression. Their descriptions of aggressive behavior among non-human animals provide a fascinating backdrop for understanding human actions. Joan McCord emphasizes the intentionality of crimes as she argues that to understand what causes crime, one must have a theory about what it means to act intentionally. After critically appraising prior theories, McCord introduces and defends a new theory of motivation based on a post-empiricist theory of language. This latest volume in the distinguished Advances in Criminological Theory series continues to add to the theoretical underpinnings of the field, and will be important to all collections of social science research on criminology.
Law

The Origins of American Criminology

Author: Francis T. Cullen

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 433

View: 364

The Origins of American Criminology is an invaluable resource. Both separately and together, these essays capture the stories behind the invention of criminology’s major theoretical perspectives. They preserve information that otherwise would have been lost. There is urgency to embark on this reflective task given that the generation that defined the field for the past decades is heading into retirement. This fine volume insures that their life experiences will not be forgotten. The volume shows criminology to be a human enterprise. Ideas are not driven primarily—and often not at all—by data. Theories are not invented solely as part of the scientific process; they are not inevitable. American criminology’s great theories most often precede the collection of data; they guide and produce empirical inquiry, not vice versa. Theoretical paradigms are shaped by a host of factors—scholars’ assumptions about the world drawn from their social constructs, disciplinary content and ideology, cognitive environments found in specific universities and the field’s scholarly networks, and, quirks in a person’s biography. The volume demonstrates that humanity is what makes theory possible. Diverse experiences—when we were born, where we have lived, the unique trajectories of our personal life courses, the disciplines and academic places we have ended up—allow individual scholars to see the world differently.
Social Science

The Origins of American Criminology

Author: Andrew Myer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 433

View: 988

The Origins of American Criminology is an invaluable resource. Both separately and together, these essays capture the stories behind the invention of criminology's major theoretical perspectives. They preserve information that otherwise would have been lost. There is urgency to embark on this reflective task given that the generation that defined the field for the past decades is heading into retirement. This fine volume insures that their life experiences will not be forgotten. The volume shows criminology to be a human enterprise. Ideas are not driven primarily-and often not at all-by data. Theories are not invented solely as part of the scientific process; they are not inevitable. American criminology's great theories most often precede the collection of data; they guide and produce empirical inquiry, not vice versa. Theoretical paradigms are shaped by a host of factors-scholars' assumptions about the world drawn from their social constructs, disciplinary content and ideology, cognitive environments found in specific universities and the field's scholarly networks, and, quirks in a person's biography. The volume demonstrates that humanity is what makes theory possible. Diverse experiences-when we were born, where we have lived, the unique trajectories of our personal life courses, the disciplines and academic places we have ended up-allow individual scholars to see the world differently.