This important volume brings together seminal papers investigating the framework upon which the economic analysis of land markets is based, stretching from the earliest insights of the founding fathers to current debates and research. Recent work on the process and implications of 'land value capitalisation' and land use regulation is well represented, for due to capitalisation, land is responsible for far more of the distribution of real incomes than is widely recognised. This collection settles this, restoring the study of land markets to its rightful place - central to economic understanding.With an original introduction by the editors this insightful collection is an essential reference point for students, researchers and policymakers.
Land use controls can affect the quality of the environment, the provision of public services, the distribution of income and wealth, the development of natural resources, and the growth of the national economy. The Economics of Zoning Laws is the first book to apply the modern economic theory of property rights to all major aspects of zoning. Zoning laws are neither irrational constrints on otherwise efficient markets nor disinterested attempts to correct market failure. Rather, zoning must be viewed as a collective property right, vested in local governments and administered by politicians who rationally repsond to their constituents and to developers as markets for development rights arise. The Economics of Zoning Laws develops the economic theories of property rights and public choice and applies them to three zoning controversies: the siting of a large industrial plant, the exclusionary zoning of the suburbs, and the constitutional protection of propery owners from excessive regulation. Economic and legal theory, William Fischel contends, suggest that payment of damages under the taking clause of the Constitution may provide the most effective remedy for excessive zoning regulations.
Regulation and Economic Analysis: A Critique Over Two Centuries argues that long experience with the practice of regulation creates a broad anti-intervention consensus among economists. This consensus is based on comparison of real intervention to real markets rather than an ideological preconception. It is shown that economic theory can support all possible positions on intervention. Much theory is too abstract to support any policy position; many arguments about how intervention might help contain qualifications expressing doubts about whether the potential can be realized; many theories illustrate the drawbacks of intervention. The vast literature on these issues concentrates either on specific cases or polemics that exaggerate both sides of the argument. Regulation and Economic Analysis seeks to show the depth of the discontent, develop interpretations of economic theory that follow from skepticism about statism and provide selected illustrations. The discussion begins with examination of general equilibrium theory and proceeds to discuss market failure with stress on monopoly and particularly what is deemed excessive concern with predatory behavior. International trade issues, transaction costs, property rights, economic theories of government, the role of special institutions such as contracts, the defects of macroeconomic and equity arguments for regulating individual markets, environmental economics and the defects of public land management policies are examined.
Planning, Law and Economics sets out a new framework for applying a legal approach to spatial planning, showing how to improve the practice and help achieve its aims. The book covers planning laws, citizens' rights and property rights, asking ‘What rules do we want to make and, where necessary, enforce? And how do we want to apply them in planning practice?’ This book sets out, in general and illustrated with concrete examples, how the three types of law mentioned above are unavoidably involved in all types of spatial planning. The book also makes clear that these laws can be combined in different ways, each way a particular approach to the practice of spatial planning (regulative planning, structuring markets, pro-active planning, collaborative planning, etc.). Throughout, the book shows what legal approaches can be taken to spatial planning, and uses a four-part framework to evaluate the effects of choosing such an approach. The spatial planning should be effective, legitimate, morally just and economically sound. In particular the book details why the economic effects for society are important and how spatial planning affects how the economic resources of land and buildings are used. The book will be invaluable to students and planners to understand the relationship between their actions and the basic principles of the rule of law in a democratic, liberal society.
Market-based Approaches to Environmental Regulation reviews the economics literature of market-based environmental regulations and design issues for environmental taxes and cap-and-trade systems. It begins by reviewing the economics literature on the theory of market-based environmental regulations. It then goes on to cover design issues for environmental taxes and cap-and-trade systems. Market-based Approaches to Environmental Regulation also discusses the U.S. experience with a number of regulatory approaches that are commonly characterized as market-based and describes the mix of market and non-market instruments that characterize these policies. Market-based Approaches to Environmental Regulation will be of interest to all researchers and practitioners in the field of environmental regulation.
''This is an important book. The authors in effect offer a positive theory of planning and urbanisation. As such, Webster and Lai''s model, based on institutional economics, is a vast improvement on some equally ambitious predecessors. The book''s insights and clarity make it a must reading for anyone seeking better understanding of how cities evolve as they do, and why planning is an integral part of their evolution.'' - Ernest Alexander, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, US ''A truly remarkable achievement.'' - Mark Pennington, University of London, UK ''Chris Webster and Lawrence Lai have created a coherent and insightful integration of concepts such as property rights, organizations, competition, incentives, transaction costs, public goods, and externalities, which will help theorists and urban practitioners analyze and manage city goods and services. An important insight of the authors is the recognition of the interdependencies of people in a neighborhood, which can be efficiently handled with shares in the property value of the neighborhood. There is a constant question of how much markets and how much government should be involved in urban matters, and the authors provide a reasoned, balanced approach which recognizes the vital role of government while appreciating the effectiveness of markets and decentralized decision making, including private institutions or" clubs" such as homeowners'' associations. Their position that governments and markets co-evolve and complement one another is sound, and their conclusions regarding the need to provide clear property rights and efficient rules provide us with theoretical tools to better understand how cities can be improved while being wary of the "allure of utopia".'' - Fred Foldvary, Santa Clara University, California, US ''This is a really important contribution to the planning literature. Beautifully written and clearly structured, it explains the complex relationship between" planning" and "markets" using the economic perspective of transaction cost theory and the" new-institutionalism". This provides a robust way of addressing the old "economic and planning" agenda, which the authors illustrate with references to cases and situations from across the world. Informative and stimulating, this should be included in every planning theory course, and will be helpful to all trying to re-think old debates about planning and markets.'' - Patsy Healey, Newcastle University, UK ''Professors Webster and Lai have written a masterly work that applies the principles of Hayek and of institutional economics to understanding cities. This is a refreshing and more convincing alternative to the standard politically correct views.'' - Harry W. Richardson, University of Southern California, US ''Property Rights, Planning and Markets covers an original and intriguing issue, viz. the existence and development of cities at the interface of market forces and planned or controlled policies ...the book offers new horizons and contains refreshing reading material.'' - Peter Nijkamp, Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands This book represents a major innovation in the institutional analysis of cities and their planning, management and governance. Using concepts of transaction costs and property rights, the work shows systematically how urban order evolves as individuals co-operate in cities for mutual gain. Five kinds of urban order are examined, arising as co-operating individuals seek to reduce the costs of transacting with each other. These are organisational order (combinations of property rights), institutional order (rules and sanctions), proprietary order (fragmentation of property rights), spatial order and public domain order. Property Rights, Planning and Markets also offers an institutional interpretation of urban planning and management that challenges both the view that planning inevitably conflicts with freedom of contract and the view that its function is a means of correcting market failures. Real life examples from countries and regions around the world are used to illustrate the universal relevance of theoretical generalisations, which will be welcomed by a new generation of policymakers and students who take on a world view that goes beyond national boundaries.
Land economics is grossly neglected in developing countries, including India. The disconnect between land use planning through master plans and land economics is glaring. Master planning has led to an acute scarcity of serviced land and floor space for economic growth and affordable housing. It has resulted in sprawl, housing–employment mismatch, environmental degradation, social exclusion, rent-seeking and deadweight welfare losses. Land Economics and Policy in Developing Countries delves into theory and practice of land economics to draw lessons for land policy and management. It presents concepts and perspectives of land, functioning of land markets, determinants of location and land use, fallacies of comprehensive land use planning, sustainable land management design, land-based financing of infrastructure and land policy reforms in developing countries. This book evaluates land policy and national urban strategy frameworks, and suggests directions for broader reforms in urban planning, financing and governance.