Despite the efforts of Southeast Asian governments and of ASEAN, transboundary haze continues to be a major environmental problem in Southeast Asia. This book demonstrates that the issue is complex, and explains why efforts to solve the problem in purely political terms are ineffective, and likely to continue to be ineffective. The book shows how state-led, state-incentivised agribusiness development lies at the heart of the problem, leading to a large rise in palm oil production, with extensive clearing of forests, leading to deliberate or accidental fires and the resulting haze. Moreover, although the forest clearing is occurring in Indonesia, many of the companies involved are Malaysian and Singaporean; and, further, many of these companies have close relationships with the politicians and officials responsible for addressing the problem and who thereby have a conflict of interest. The author concludes by discussing the huge difficulties involved in overturning this system of 'patronage politics'.
This book is a collection of insights from experts of various fields, and will entail discussions of the recurring haze problem in Southeast Asia.It discusses multiple aspects of the haze problem. What is the cause of the haze? Who are the perpetrators and victims? What are the impacts and costs of the haze? Why has the haze problem persisted for decades? Are there prospects of resolving the pollution? How should we analyze the issue? Which solutions are more or less effective than others? How can we involve the stakeholders? The book provides a wide range of views on the haze problem. Written in a simple and accessible manner, this book allows the readers to easily access across different fields and develop a deeper understanding of the haze.
In the context of massive environmental problems in Southeast Asia, the countries in the region have decided – at least in some instances – to create regimes to solve these problems jointly. This empirical observation is surprising, given the Southeast Asian countries’ general reluctance to regional cooperation, the governance and budgetary constraints that are typical for developing countries and the huge heterogeneity of the involved countries in terms of environmental vulnerability, economic capacity and hegemonic power. This book analyzes the creation and effectiveness of two environmental regimes, one on transboundary haze pollution and a second on resource management of the Mekong. It will be shown that regime creation is extremely problematic and strategies to overcome conflicting actor constellations are mostly lacking.
Der Rauchschleier ist ein jährliches Problem für Indonesien sowie für andere Südostasien Regionen geblieben. Da es bisher nur sehr wenig Studien zu der Rauchwolkenproblematik in Südostasien gibt aus einer kommunikationswissenschaftlichen Sichtgibt, wird die vorliegende Studie die Option ergreifen und analysieren wie die Medien über das regionale Problem in 2015 berichteten und welchen Frame diese nutzen. Die vorliegende Studie verwendete das Konzept von Framing und Frame Building als theoretischen Hintergrund sowie der manual clusterin approach und ermittelte die Frames, die in der Berichterstattung von Indonesien, Singapur, Malaysia, den Vereinigten Staten und Australien dazu genutzt wurden. Die vorliegende Studie ermittelte ebenfalls die Unterschiede zwischen den zuvor genannten Ländern bezüglich ihrer Nutzung von Frames und erklärte diese anhand des Konzepts des Frame Building.
One of the most challenging environmental threats to the ten countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been the haze, the sickening and deadly cloud of smoky pollution caused by widespread burning of land and forests in Indonesia. This book examines both the threat and response to it by analysing environmental cooperation in Southeast Asia from an international regime perspective. Tracing the development of regional cooperation on the haze and evaluating the effectiveness of the cooperation, the author argues that the haze crisis, combined with the economic crisis of 1997, has profoundly challenged the ASEAN modus operandi, and resulted in ASEAN’s efforts to establish an environmental regime to cope with environmental challenges. The emerging ASEAN haze regime is a unique case study of a regional environmental institution in multi-levelled global environmental governance. Based on in-depth original research, this case study is integrated into international relations, political science, and comparative political analysis literatures and contributes to a better understanding of processes within the regional organisation.
The fires and resulting air pollution which afflicted Southeast Asia in 1997 and 1998 were a major environmental disaster affecting the livelihood and health of the people of the region, destroying forest and wildlife resources, releasing greenhouse gases and having serious implications for the rich biodiversity of the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Individual chapters have been contributed by international experts and cover a range of issues. The relation of the El Niño effect to droughts and fires is discussed and the history of fires in the region is outlined. Although the fires were associated with long periods of drought, in most cases they had human causes, and the land and forest management policies responsible for them are also identified. Another chapter describes the important role remote sensing played in monitoring and locating the fires and haze. Other contributions are concerned with the chemistry of haze, the long-range transport of pollutants and their modelling, the effects on forest ecosystems, and the implications for global climate change. Health impacts of the air pollution are discussed and the costs in economic terms are analysed. The inability of the Indonesian government to control the fires, the public responses to pollution problems and efforts at international co-operation are also discussed, as is the portrayal of the issues in the media.
"A collection of insights from experts of various fields, and will entail discussions of the recurring haze problem in Southeast Asia. It discusses multiple aspects of the haze problem. What is the cause of the haze? Who are the perpetrators and victims? What are the impacts and costs of the haze? Why has the haze problem persisted for decades? Are there prospects of resolving the pollution? How should we analyze the issue? Which solutions are more or less effective than others? How can we involve the stakeholders? The book provides a wide range of views on the haze problem. Written in a simple and accessible manner, this book allows the readers to easily access across different fields and develop a deeper understanding of the haze"--
This volume, "Air Quality", contains many original findings on biomasss fires, transboundary pollution and associated haze and their impacts on health, biodiversity and economy and thus is expected to be a source book for research in South East Asia. Many of the results presented in this volume pertain to this region and are thus available under one ' roof.' Some papers could be discussed in graduate level classes dealing with Air Pollution, Air Quality, Cloud Physics and Biophysics. The scientific community will find this book a useful addition to their personal and institutional libraries.
Escaping the economic and security-centered approaches, prevalent in contemporary U.S. debate the contributors explore political relations between the European Union (EU) and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).Their inter-disciplinary perspectives touch on domains such as security, comparative integration, human rights, energy.
Is ASEAN the foundation of a strong regional community in Southeast Asia? Or is it no more than an instrument used by its members to advance their individual interests? Addressing these questions, Shaun Narine offers a comprehensive political analysis of ASEAN from its creation in 1967 through the events of 2001. Reflecting both the accomplishments and the limitations of the organization, Explaining ASEAN explores issues of regional security, economic stability - and the growing expectations of the international community. Narine's trenchant analysis makes it clear that, unless ASEAN can resolve the problems of inadequate resources and disagreements among the member states, its future as an effective, active international regime is doubtful.
Talking about ASEAN, this volume reappraises the organization from the inside, through controversial or perplexing issues such as the ASEAN Way, the accession of the new members, including Myanmar, the principle of non-interference, regional security, regional economic integration, the haze and SARS, and ASEAN's future.
Focuses both on specific regional organizations like ASEAN, The Asian Development Bank and APEC, as well as on key institutions such as East Asian legal systems, the media, organized labour, Asian business systems, and the developmental state.
East Asia is a region that holds much fascination for many people. It is one of the world's most dynamic and diverse regions and is also becoming an increasingly coherent region through the inter-play of various integrative economic, political and socio-cultural processes. Such a development is generally referred to as 'regionalism', which itself has become a defining feature of the contemporary international system, and this book explores the various ways in which East Asian regionalism continues to deepen. Focusing on the main themes of the East Asia region and the study of regionalism, economic regionalism and East Asia's new economic geography, Southeast Asia and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), trans-regionalism, East Asia's new free trade agreement trends and key transnational issues in East Asia such as international migration and energy security, East Asian Regionalism will be an essential text for courses on East Asian regionalism, Asian politics and Asian economics. Key pedagogical features include: end of chapter 'study questions' case studies that discuss topical issues with study questions also provided useful tables and figures which illustrate key regional trends in East Asia extensive summary conclusions covering the chapter's main findings from different international political economy perspectives.
This book investigates the patterns of conflict management in contemporary Southeast Asia. The region has long been characterized by the twin process of state-formation and nation-building, which has been responsible for most of the region’s intrastate and interstate conflicts. While this process is still ongoing, regional conflicts and their management are increasingly affected by globalisation, which not only serves as a new source of, or exacerbating factor to, conflict, but also makes new instruments available for conflict management. Employing the concepts of incompatibility management and mediation regime, the book analyses the management of seven conflicts in the region: the Rohingya crisis and the Kachin conflict in Myanmar, the Khmer Krom conflict in Vietnam, the West Papua conflict in Indonesia, the political conflict in Thailand, the Mekong River conflicts involving five Southeast Asian countries and China and the transboundary haze problem emanating from Indonesia. The efforts to manage each of them are imagined as constituting a mediation regime, and its effectiveness is assessed in terms of good governance. Among the findings of the book is that the measures of manoeuvring around incompatibilities are employed predominantly in managing regional conflicts. In intrastate conflicts, which mostly involve ethnic minorities, the authorities first aim to eliminate, or impose its own position on, ethnic parties. When this strategy proves unsuccessful, they have no choice but manoeuvre around incompatibilities, which may eventually open up a space for mutual learning. In interstate conflicts, the manoeuvring around strategy works in a more straightforward manner, contributing to regional stability. However, the stability is achieved at the cost of local communities and the natural environment, which absorb the incompatibilities in conflict.
It is predicted by some observers that the 21st century will be remembered as the Asian Century. Many of the countries in the region seem to be able to take the economic and trade baton when one of the others experiences problems. the region, in general, continues to grow economically, politically and militarily. The articles presented in this book examine the current political and economic situations in nations across Asia, particularly focusing on economic developments. Contents: Preface; Why Does China Succeed in Attracting and Utilising Foreign Direct Investment?; Democracy Movement at the Crossroads: Protracted Democratisation and De-mobilisation in Hong Kong; China's Opening to the Outside World with Facing Economic Globalisation; China's Telecommunications Reforms: From Monopoly towards Competition; World Bank Lending: Issues Raised by China's Qinghai Resettlement Project; Explaining the Soft-Open Regionalism in East Asia; Governance, Security and the Environmental Policy in South Asia: A Paradox of Change and Continuity; Carbon Emissions Control, Trade Liberalisation and Electricity Market Imperfection: Co-ordinated Approaches to Taiwan's Trade and Tax Policy; ASEAN, 'Haz
As the regional financial and economic crisis has bottomed out and the ASEAN countries are on the recovery path, this volume seeks to carry out a post-mortem on the crisis to evaluate the sustainability of the recovery and the long-term direction of the ASEAN economies. It also examines the challenges and competitiveness of these economies which have become significant issues in the post-recovery process. Since it is not sufficient to address the economic and financial aspects, the volume al...
At present environmental chemistry is becoming an increasingly popular subject in both under graduate and graduated education in the whole World and especially in all Asian countries. Different courses in ecology, chemistry, environmental science, public health, geography, biology, and environmental engineering all include this subject in their curriculum. Many textbooks have appeared in recent years aiming to fulfill these requirements; however, most of these books operate mainly with examples from developed countries of Europe, USA and Canada. Taking into account the geographic boundaries of environmental pollution that is especially pronounced in Asia and the specific peculiarities of pollution in developing countries, this textbook is supposed to close the gap by providing regionally oriented knowledge in basic and applied environmental chemistry.