This book reconstructs the fascinating but obscure history of the Eleventh Amendment to the US Constitution, which limits the exercise of US judicial power when American states are sued. Its modern meaning was largely shaped around cases concerning the liability of Southern states to pay their debts during and after Reconstruction: by shielding states from liability, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Eleventh Amendment eased the establishment of post-Reconstruction Southern society and left a maddeningly complicated law of federal jurisdiction.
Haines, Charles Grove. The Conflict over Judicial Powers in the United States to 1870. New York: Columbia University Press, 1909. 180 pp. Reprinted 2001 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 99-088241. ISBN 1-58477-080-5. Cloth. $60. * From the Columbia University series Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, Volume XXXV, Number 1, Whole Number 92. Haines shows the gradual development of the increasing power and authority of the judiciary through this study of the conflicting opinions over the right of the judiciary to nullify legislative acts. Includes discussion of resistance from the states, attitudes about the slavery controversy, and the effects of Jacksonian democracy on the power of the judiciary.
In offering a general account of the Court as department head, Pfander takes up such important debates in the federal courts' literature as Congress's power to strip the federal courts of jurisdiction to review state court decisions, its authority to assign decision-making authority to state courts, and much more.
Coxe's main argument is that the "Constitution contains express texts providing for judicial competency to decide questioned legislation to be constitutional or unconstitutional and to hold it valid or void accordingly" (4). There are four subordinate arguments: First, that the framers of the constitution specifically granted the courts the power to hold a law unconstitutional by dint of the Supremacy Clause and by Article III, Section 2 defining judicial power. Second, that documents written before the constitution were influential in framing the text and establishing the idea of judicial review. The third looks at the era before and during the confederation with an eye toward the court's power to rule on constitutionality. The fourth argument finds analogies and precedents in foreign law, including Roman and Canon law.
Excerpt from The Confict Over Judicial Powers in the United States to 1870 This essay is the outgrowth of a special study of one of the problems of constitutional law begun at Ursinus College in 1903, under the direction of Dr. J. Lynn Barnard, now of the School of Pedagogy, Philadelphia. The main features of the monograph were planned and partially developed while pursuing the courses in constitutional law offered by Professor John W.Burgess, Dean of the Faculty of Political Science of Columbia University. The search has been continued in the reports of judicial decisions, executive messages, legislative debates and resolutions and newspaper comment for public sentiment bearing on the right of the judiciary to declare legislative acts void. American constitutional history reveals an almost continuous conflict over the assertion of this right by the judiciary in the United States. The controversy originated at the time when the rising nationality in America found itself at the parting of the ways - toward a supreme power in the legislature, or toward a modified form of supremacy in courts of justice. The contest, begun when judges refused to execute legislative acts which they considered contrary to fundamental laws or constitutions, has been one of the foremost problems in the practical working of our federal government, and, according to the recent indications, is likely to assume greater importance in the future. This study aims to trace the sentiment relative to the exercise of judicial authority prior to 1870. The purpose has been to show the gradual development of the extraordinary powers of the judiciary in the United States, and to present a brief analysis of representative opinions on the conflict involved in this development. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
Published here with a new chapter covering judgements from 1993 to 1995, Raw judicial power? is established as the definitive analysis of the powerful forces shaping the United States Supreme Court today. Robert J. McKeever analyses the approach of the Court to the most pressing contemporary social issues, such as capital punishment, abortion, race and affirmative action, gender equality and religion, sex and politics. He shows how social policy initiatives in the US have often come from the judicial rather than the legislative branch of government, leading to charges that the Supreme Court has been exercising 'raw judicial power'. He examines the policy decisions the Court has made, and argues that the Court has increasingly jettisoned traditional notions of constitutional interpretation in order to tackle the conflicts in contemporary American society. Students of American politics, constitutional law and social policy will all find this book invaluable.
American Judicial Power: The State Court Perspective is a welcome addition to the breadth of studies on the American legal system and provides an accessible and highly illuminating overview of the state courts and their functions. The study of America’s courts is overwhelmingly skewed toward the federal government, and therefore often overlooks state courts and their importance. Michael Buenger and Paul De Muniz fill this gap in the study of American constitutionalism, as they examine the wide and distinctive powers these courts exercise, and their role in administering the bulk of the nation’s justice system. This groundbreaking work covers many critical topics pertaining to the state courts, including: a comparison of the role of state and federal courts, the history of America’s state courts, the judicial selection processes utilized in the states, the unique roles assigned to state courts and the varying structure of those courts, the relationship between state judicial power and state legislative power, and the opportunities and challenges that are and will be facing the state courts. With an insightful foreword from Sanford Levinson, this revolutionary book will be of interest to students, educators, and researchers in the fields of law, political science, and government. Constitutional law experts will also benefit from an analysis of the state courts and their powers.
Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We have not used OCR(Optical Character Recognition), as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. (2) In books where there are images such as portraits, maps, sketches etc We have endeavoured to keep the quality of these images, so they represent accurately the original artefact. Although occasionally there may be certain imperfections with these old texts, we feel they deserve to be made available for future generations to enjoy.
A Distinct Judicial Power: The Origins of an Independent Judiciary, 1606-1787, by Scott Douglas Gerber, provides the first comprehensive critical analysis of the origins of judicial independence in the United States. Part I examines the political theory of an independent judiciary. Gerber begins chapter 1 by tracing the intellectual origins of a distinct judicial power from Aristotle's theory of a mixed constitution to John Adams's modifications of Montesquieu. Chapter 2 describes the debates during the framing and ratification of the federal Constitution regarding the independence of the federal judiciary. Part II, the bulk of the book, chronicles how each of the original thirteen states and their colonial antecedents treated their respective judiciaries. This portion, presented in thirteen separate chapters, brings together a wealth of information (charters, instructions, statutes, etc.) about the judicial power between 1606 and 1787, and sometimes beyond. Part III, the concluding segment, explores the influence the colonial and early state experiences had on the federal model that followed and on the nature of the regime itself. It explains how the political theory of an independent judiciary examined in Part I, and the various experiences of the original thirteen states and their colonial antecedents chronicled in Part II, culminated in Article III of the U.S. Constitution. It also explains how the principle of judicial independence embodied by Article III made the doctrine of judicial review possible, and committed that doctrine to the protection of individual rights.
"This is the sixth of a set of eight volumes entitled 'The American State Series,' Professor W. W. Willoughby, of Johns Hopkins University, is the editor, and he states that the aim of the series is to describe the actual conditions and to suggest the various constitutional and administrative problems which exist in the government of this country and to make manifest the essential considerations involved in their settlement. Each volume is to be complete in itself and the set is to constitute a logical whole. The volumes refer respectively to the American Constitutional System, City Government, Party Organization, the Executive, the Legislature, the Judiciary, the Territories and Colonies, and to Local Government. "Each volume is written by a different author, and the writer of the present volume is Simeon E. Baldwin, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Errors of Connecticut and Professor of Constitutional Law in Yale University. This volume, like the others, is intended primarily for use in schools and colleges and for the informational of the general reader and citizen. It was not written with any special intention of satisfying any demand felt by the legal profession. The practicing lawyer is already familiar with most of this information it contains. The law student will find it of value in presenting a summary of the present condition of the machinery of the courts of this country." -The American Law Register (1898-1907) CONTENTS CASES CITED. I. THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE JUDICIAL POWER IN THE UNITED STATES. II. THE ORGANIZATION AND PRACTICAL WORKING OF AMERICAN COURTS. PART I, CHAPTER I. ENGLISH ORIGIN AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN JUDICIARY. II. THE SEPARATION OF THE JUDICIAL POWER FROM THE LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE IN AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONS. III. THE RELATIONS OF THE JUDICIARY TO THE POLITICAL DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT. IV. THE FORCE OF JUDICIAL PRECEDENTS. V. THE JUDICIAL POWER OF DEVELOPING UNWRITTEN LAW. VI. THE JUDICIAL POWER OF INTERPRETING AND DEVELOPING WRITTEN LAW. VII. THE JUDICIAL POWER OF DECLARING WHAT HAS THE FORM OF LAW NOT TO BE LAW. PART II VIII. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COURTS OF THE STATES. IX. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES. X. RELATIONS OF THE STATE JUDICIARY TO THE UNITED STATES, AND OF THE UNITED STATES JUDICIARY TO THE STATES. XI. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE COURTS OF DIFFERENT STATES. XII. TRIAL BY JURY. XIII. FORMALITIES IN JUDICIAL PROCEDURE. XIV. TRIAL COURTS FOR CIVIL CAUSES. XV. PROBATE COURTS. XVI. BANKRUPTCY AND INSOLVENCY COURTS. XVII. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. XVIII. THE EXERCISE OF JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS OUT OF COURT. XIX. APPELLATE COURTS. XX. THE ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS AND PUNISHMENT OF CONTEMPTS OF COURT. XXI. JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS IN TERRITORIES SUBJECT TO MARTIAL LAW. XXII. APPOINTMENT, TENURE OF OFFICE AND COMPENSATION OF JUDGES. XXIII. THE CHARACTER OF THE BAR AND ITS RELATIONS TO THE BENCH. XXIV. THE LAW'S DELAYS. XXV. THE ATTITUDE OF THE PEOPLE TOWARDS THE JUDICIARY.
The European Yearbook of Constitutional Law (EYCL) is an annual publication initiated by the Department of Public Law and Governance at Tilburg University and devoted to the study of constitutional law. It aims to provide a forum for in-depth analysis and discussion of new developments in the field, both in Europe and beyond. This inaugurate volume examines the safeguards and limits of judicial power in a variety of constitutional systems, both at the national and supranational level. The book approaches the judiciary as part of the constitutional system operating within a legal order that connects the citizens and institutions of the state to each other. Looking at the judiciary from this broader perspective, the traditional doctrine of the separation of powers would appear no longer to adequately represent the diversity and complexity of constitutional systems and their democratic legitimacy. Judicial independence does not mean isolation, but should better be understood as institutionalizing relationships that legitimize the power of the courts. The notions of ‘safeguards’ and ‘limits’ indicate the reciprocally enabling and protecting nature of these relationships. In recognition of this, the contributions to this volume analyse these safeguards and limits as relations existing within a complex constitutional architecture. State institutions, today, are involved in a fundamental transformation of their selfunderstanding as a result of changes in political culture. Several contributions to this volume provide examples of political criticism and pressure on the judiciary, against which the usual guarantees are unable to provide adequate protection. A convincing and effective response to threats to the judiciary’s independence requires a detailed and precise analysis of the judiciary’s constitutional safeguards and limits. This book offers a step in that direction.