The law of tracing is a complex subject which has struggled to find a home in works on property, equity, commercial law and restitution. Broadly speaking, it addresses the question of when rights held in an asset can be asserted in another asset despite changes in form or attempts to 'launder'the initial asset. Properly understood this area of study is composed of several distinct topics. This book explores all the areas covered by the law of tracing in a degree of detail not previously reached in more general works.
A pressing problem often facing commercial practitioners is how to determine the principle which would dictate when a proprietary claim is available and when it is not. This book explains the nature and structure of key interests in property in commercial transactions and analyses the incidence of proprietary claims available to holders of different interests in assets. 0This book is the first to approach the topic of tracing and derived assets in commercial transactions on a principled basis. It subjects an area of little authority and general academic comment to rigorous and detailed analysis. It contains treatment of the relevant case law and discussion of points that have yet to come up in litigation in England and abroad. By way of comparison, it considers salient aspects of the relevant rules under Article 9 of the US Uniform Commercial Code. The book is timely in light of the current debate on the shape of the law reform of secured transactions in England and elsewhere.
In this new book, Aruna Nair sets out her arguments for a re-evaluation of the law of tracing. A new model of the law of tracing is proposed and the book demonstrates how current problems can be solved using this new model. The rules of tracing are not shown not to be pure rules of evidence, aimed at resolving factual uncertainties; rather, they are explained as substantive rules of law, delineating the scope of a defendant's legal responsibility to a claimant. The book draws out the practical implications of this theoretical model, showing how a focus on defendant autonomy and claimant vulnerability can both explain the current state of English law and provide a critical perspective on potential future developments. The first part of the book considers the nature of tracing, providing an overview of the analytical and doctrinal questions raised by the current law, re-framing the dominant 'value' account of tracing, and proposing a new model which can solve problems in the current law. The second part of the book focusses on circumstances in which the tracing remedy is available to a claimant, demonstrating the practical application of such claims to specific problems. Finally, the third part of the book considers how the tracing remedy relates to other private law remedies, and the role it plays within the law of unjust enrichment.
A pressing problem often facing commercial practitioners is how to determine the principle which would dictate when a proprietary claim is available and when it is not. This book explains the nature and structure of key interests in property in commercial transactions and analyses the incidence of proprietary claims available to holders of different interests in assets. The book starts by identifying the structure of those interests which the author terms "lesser proprietary interests", comprising security interests and interests based on retention of title in contracts of sale of goods, hire-purchase agreements, and leases, thereby contributing to the understanding of concepts which are traditionally used to explain this area of law such as bailment and fiduciary relationship. Using this framework, the book examines the circumstances in which the interestsare lost and the extent to which proprietary claims can be asserted in assets that derive from the original subject matter, that is proceeds, products and income, as well as in accretions. It examines these claims at three levels: first, as a matter of default rules in the absence of misappropriationof the original subject matter; secondly, as a matter of contract, considering the limits of contractual freedom; and thirdly, in circumstances in which the original subject matter has been misappropriated. This book is the first to approach the topic of tracing and derived assets in commercial transactions on a principled basis. It subjects an area of little authority and general academic comment to rigorous and detailed analysis. It contains treatment of the relevant case law and discussion of points that have yet to come up in litigation in England and abroad. By way of comparison, it considers salient aspects of the relevant rules under Article 9 of the US Uniform Commercial Code. The book istimely in light of the current debate on the shape of the law reform of secured transactions in England and elsewhere.
Tracing Separate and Community Funds: Using Tracing Concepts in the Daily Practice of Family Law Follow detailed example showing "how to" properly prepare a family law tracing to recover for your client property acquired with "their" separate property funds but now presumed to be community. Provides guidance such as: • "Game plan": Describes proper procedure for tracing. • :Fiduciary Opportunity Doctrine: Shows how and why this interspousal duty can have a significant effect. • :Elements: Details step-by-step tracing to show that: 1) Separate funds on hand at withdrawal 2) Separate funds were actually withdrawn 3) Intent to acquire this asset as separate property 4) In some situations, that intent was disclosed. • :Sample: Includes "mechanical tracing" with sample testimony satisfying "intent" and disclosure issues. This eBook features links to Lexis Advance for further legal research options.
Routledge Q&As give you the tools to practice and refine your exam technique, showing you how to apply your knowledge to maximum effect in an exam situation. Each book contains essay and problem-based questions on the most commonly examined topics, complete with expert guidance and fully worked model answers that help you to: Plan your revision: introducing how best to approach revision in each subject Know what examiners are looking for: identifying and explaining the main elements of each question to help you understand the best approach providing marker annotation to show how examiners will read your answer Gain marks, and avoid common errors: identifying common pitfalls students encounter in class and in assessment providing revision advice to help you aim higher in essays and exams Understand and remember the law: using diagrams as overviews for each answer to demonstrate how the law fits together The series is also supported by an online resource that allows you to test your progress during the run-up to exams. Features include: multiple choice questions, bonus Q&As and podcasts. www.routledge.com/cw/revision
In this work, Aruna Nair sets out her arguments for a re-evaluation of the law of tracing. In this model the rules of tracing do not merely resolve factual uncertainties but also define the scope of a defendant's substantive legal responsibility to a claimant.
Commercial law by Charles Christopher James Mitchell
For four decades, Professor Francis Rose has been at the forefront of commercial and maritime law scholarship as both author and editor. In honour of his outstanding contribution, this collection gathers twenty-two essays from internationally-leading scholars and practitioners, in which they expose and debate important contemporary controversies within their respective fields: general contract law, sales law, carriage of goods by sea, insurance law, agency law, the law of restitution/unjust enrichment, and the conflict of laws
The Law of Trusts and Equitable Obligations provides students wtih a detailed and stimulating account of the law of equity and trusts. The fifth edition has been thoroughly updated by Warren Barr, senior lecturer at the University of Liverpool and Law Teacher of the Year 2006 in collaboration with Robert Pearce and John Stevens.
Soft law increasingly shapes and impacts the content of international law in multiple ways, from being a first step in a norm-making process to providing detailed rules and technical standards required for the interpretation and the implementation of treaties. This is especially true in the area of human rights. While relatively few human rights treaties have been adopted at the UN level in the last two decades, the number of declarations, resolutions, conclusions, and principles has grown significantly. In some areas, soft law has come to fill a void in the absence of treaty law, exerting a degree of normative force exceeding its non-binding character. In others areas, soft law has become a battleground for interpretative struggles to expand and limit human rights protection in the context of existing regimes. Despite these developments, little attention has been paid to soft law within human rights legal scholarship. Building on a thorough analysis of relevant case studies, this volume systematically explores the roles of soft law in both established and emerging human rights regimes. The book argues that a better understanding of how soft law shapes and affects different branches of international human rights law not only provides a more dynamic picture of the current state of international human rights, but also helps to unsettle and critically question certain political and doctrinal beliefs. Following introductory chapters that lay out the general conceptual framework, the book is divided in two parts. The first part focuses on cases that examine the role of soft law within human rights regimes where there are established hard law standards, its progressive and regressive effects, and the role that different actors play in the incubation process. The second part focuses on the role of soft law in emerging areas of international law where there is no substantial treaty codification of norms. These chapters examine the relationship between soft and hard law, the role of different actors in formulating new soft law, and the potential for eventual codification.
Czech Yearbook of International Law is a compilation of articles written by professionals who offer unique insight into special issues regulated in the European legal culture. CYIL promotes development of international law and of new analytical approaches that will increase understanding of this branch of law and its goals in the current global era. The focal points of interest in Czech Yearbook of International Law are actual issues involving international treaties in the context of EU law, international contractual relations, the protection of human rights in the international context, aspects of criminal law as well as international arbitration. The goal of this book is to further advance and develop the international law analyses particularly from the countries of central and eastern Europe.
Cases and Materials on the Law of Restitution is an authoritative and scholarly guide written by leading experts who have shaped and defined the law of restitution and unjust enrichment. Extensive coverage of cases and academic perspectives provides a rounded view of the subject. Introductions, notes, and questions enable readers to check their understanding of key issues. The second edition of this seminal title covers many important new cases and academic publications, including Birk's 'absence of basis' approach. The coverage reflects the continuing debates on questions such as: * what is an enrichment? * was the enrichment at the claimant's expense? * what is the role of tracing? * when will proprietary restitution be granted? * when does change of position operate as a defence? * and does corrective justice underpin this area of the law? The book's structure has been updated to reflect the judicial development of the law of restitution, providinga map through this complex subject. This book is invaluable for undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral students, as well as academics working in the area.