This book investigates cluster-life-cycle (CLC) analysis to inform the entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP), in order to support the effectiveness of the smart specialization strategy (S3). It focuses on the evolutionary analysis of clusters’ development stages (emergence, development, maturity, decline/transformation), highlighting how different phases of the CLC have a different role in informing S3-policy-making and identifying regions’ potentials to specialize. In so doing, it offers an original conceptual model that explains what information can be provided by CLC analysis in the effective design and implementation of S3 and EDP, systematizes clusters' stage-specific features, and unveils the role played by each CLC stage. It contributes to the emerging academic debate on the role of the CLC concept in policy-making, by highlighting the importance of CLC analysis in dynamically investigating regional contexts and tailoring development policies such as S3. The book is an invaluable resource for academics and regional policy makers, providing them with guidance and recommendations on how to effectively approach the design and implementation of S3 and EDP, by fully tapping the potential of CLC analysis.
This book studies the determinants of cluster survival by analyzing their adaptability to change in the economic environment. Linking theoretic knowledge with empirical observations, a simulation model (based in the N/K method) is developed, which explains when and why the cluster's architecture assists or hampers adaptability. It is found that architectures with intermediate degrees of division of labor and more collective governance forms foster adaptability.
One-size-fits-all cluster policies have been rightly criticized in the literature. One promising approach is to focus cluster policies on the specific needs of firms depending on the stage of development (emergence, growth, sustainment or decline) their cluster is in. In this highly insightful book, these stage-specific cluster policies are analysed and evaluated. Moreover, several chapters also focus on smart specialization policies to promote regional development by taking into account the emergence and adaptation of clusters and industries. In so doing, the book contributes to a newly emerging literature on how the cluster life cycle concept can inform policies and how these policies differ from static approaches that ignore the dynamism of clusters. The underlying idea is to foster the ability of clusters to renew themselves and to generate new developmental paths, thus preventing stagnation and decline.This state-of-the-art exploration of smart specialization from a cluster life cycle perspective is an invaluable book for academics in the fields of economic geography, entrepreneurship, innovation, industrial economics, regional studies and cluster research. It will also appeal to regional policy makers and practitioners dealing with public policy.
One-size-fits-all cluster policies have been rightly criticized in the literature. One promising approach is to focus cluster policies on the specific needs of firms depending on the stage of development (emergence, growth, sustainment or decline) their cluster is in. In this highly insightful book, these stage-specific cluster policies are analysed and evaluated. Moreover, several chapters also focus on smart specialization policies to promote regional development by taking into account the emergence and adaptation of clusters and industries.
The purpose of this paper is to link the propensity for innovative activity to cluster spatially to the stage of the industry life cycle. The theory of knowledge spillovers, based on the knowledge production function for innovative activity, suggests that geographic proximity matters most in industries where tacit knowledge plays an important role in the generation of innovative activity. According to the emerging literature on the industry life cycle, tacit knowledge plays the most important role during the early stages of the industry life cycle. Based on a data base that identifies innovative activity for individual states and specific industries in the United States, the empirical evidence suggests that the propensity for innovative activity to concentrate geographically is shaped by the stage of the industry life cycle. The generation of new economic knowledge tends to result in a greater propensity for innovative activity to cluster during the early stages of the industry life cycle, and to be more highly dispersed during the mature and declining stages of the life cycle, particularly after controlling for the extent to which the location of production is geographically concentrated.
TitleAbstract/titlePurpose– This paper aims to examine whether in old industrial regions, the trajectory of clusters follows that of their corresponding industry or deviates from it and which are the factors that account for cluster evolution. This paper deals with the issue of how established clusters either renew or transform themselves in such regions and how they adapt to changes in their corresponding international industries.Design/methodology/approach– This research paper draws from in-depth case studies on six industrial clusters, takes a longitudinal perspective and uses a multi-level and qualitative analysis. Based on existing literature, the paper suggests and exploratory analytical framework with four alternative scenarios for cluster evolution and three broad factors: cluster knowledge base, social capital at cluster and region-level and public policies.Findings– Clusters do not always follow the life cycle of its dominant industry. The paper clearly shows a diversity of cluster evolution across clusters and even within clusters (at subcluster level). This study suggests that cluster knowledge diversity and heterogeneity allow to broaden the scope of evolutionary trajectories available; the same goes for social capital at cluster and region levels.Research limitations/implications– The main limitation of this paper lies in its qualitative approach that makes its conclusions more suggestive than conclusive. In any case, further research on other Basque clusters may corroborate or question its findings.Originality/value– The paper offers an empirical and longitudinal study on cluster evolution, very much needed to the ongoing theoretical discussion on this issue. So far, there are very few empirical studies on cluster evolution with this perspective. At the same time, it presents a theoretical framework to analyse diversity of cluster evolution in old industrial regions that builds on Menzel and Fornah’s (2010) model.
Cluster organizations are becoming more and more popular, both in developing and developed countries. Considering the development of cluster policy and the related dynamic growth of cluster initiatives in the world, the lack of sufficient knowledge on the development of cooperation in cluster organizations inhibits their development and, in many cases, causes their complete disintegration. The book provides new important elements to the current system of knowledge, filling in cognitive and research gaps in the scientific literature on problems related to cooperation in cluster organizations. The most valuable features for the reader concern the epistemological, methodological, and application aspects. The new element includes a theoretical concept, which refers to the trajectory of development of cooperative relationships in cluster organizations that facilitates the understanding and explanation of mechanisms responsible for cooperation in such organizations. The concept also has great practical advantages, especially for people implementing the idea of "clustering": coordinators, facilitators, and members of cluster organizations as well as politicians and public authorities are responsible for shaping and implementing the cluster policy. It will be of value to researchers, academics, and students in fields with an interest in organizational studies, management of innovation and technology, strategic management, industrial economics, and economic geography.
'This well-edited volume should be on the shelf of every regional development agency library. Its seventeen chapters written by 31 predominantly academic contributors are divided into four coherent sections: the first on cluster and network modelling, the next on empirical analysis, a third on case studies, finishing with two chapters on policy analysis and strategies.' - Tony Jackson, Journal of Economic Development This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of spatial industrial clusters and inter-firm networks. Given the prevailing political belief that clusters can be a major vehicle for economic development and growth, it is important to have a sound understanding of clusters and how they emerge, grow, eventually stagnate and disappear. It is also vital to know when and how to apply policy measures to support cluster development in order to increase economic welfare. This book illuminates both the theoretical and empirical issues relating to clusters and inter-firm networks, and presents a number of interesting case studies from a variety of different countries.
"In The Capacity to Innovate, Sarah Giest provides insight into the collaborative and absorptive capacities needed to provide public support to local innovation through cluster organizations. The book offers a detailed view of the vertical, multi-level, and horizontal dynamics in clusters and cluster policy and addresses how they are managed and supported. Using the biotechnology field as an example, Giest highlights challenges in the collaborative efforts of public bodies, private companies, and research institutes to establish a successful eco-system of innovation in this sector. The book argues that cluster policy in collaboration with cluster organizations should focus on absorptive and collaborative capacity elements missing in the cluster context in order to improve performance. Currently, governments operate at different levels--local to supranational--in order to support clusters, and cluster policies are often pursued in parallel to other programs. As the book shows, this can lead to uncoordinated efforts and ineffective cluster strategies. Relational dynamics are often overlooked when working backwards from performance indicators, since their effects are largely indirect but Giest demonstrates that both the cluster organization and the cluster eco-system play a role. The Capacity to Innovate advocates for a coordinated effort by government and cluster organizations to support capacity elements lacking within the specific cluster context."--
The Handbook of Local and Regional Development provides a comprehensive statement and reference point for local and regional development. The scope of this Handbook’s coverage and contributions engages with and reflects upon the politics and policy of how we think about and practise local and regional development, encouraging dialogue across the disciplinary barriers between notions of ‘local and regional development’ in the Global North and ‘development studies’ in the Global South. This Handbook is organized into seven inter-related sections, with an introductory chapter setting out the rationale, aims and structure of the Handbook. Section one situates local and regional development in its global context. Section two establishes the key issues in understanding the principles and values that help us define what is meant by local and regional development. Section three critically reviews the current diversity and variety of conceptual and theoretical approaches to local and regional development. Section four address questions of government and governance. Section five connects critically with the array of contemporary approaches to local and regional development policy. Section six is an explicitly global review of perspectives on local and regional development from Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America. Section seven provides reflection and discussion of the futures for local and regional development in an international and multidisciplinary context. With over forty contributions from leading international scholars in the field, this Handbook provides critical reviews and appraisals of current state-of-the-art conceptual and theoretical approaches and future developments in local and regional development.
Suicide Over the Life Cycle: Risk Factors, Assessment, and Treatment of Suicidal Patients attempts to solve the mystery of suicide by filling in the gaps in our understanding about risk factors and treatment of suicidal patients, and by integrating and translating current knowledge about suicidal behavior into practical treatment considerations. This book brings together the research studies and clinical experience of more than 40 internationally recognized contributors who paint an insightful and thought-provoking portrait of the suicidal patient at various stages of the life span. A comprehensive guide, this superb text is a practical and encyclopedic compendium of assessment and intervention strategies that the clinician can use in day-to-day treatment of suicidal patients.
This proceedings book presents papers from the 18th International Scientific Conference, held in September 2019 at Volgograd State University (Russia). The research findings are largely based on the theoretical assumptions of Oleg Inshakov, renowned for his pioneering work on the theory of economic genetics and the theory of “development nucleus” for economic systems. The papers focus on the impact of the 4th industrial revolution on economic growth, the concept of ecosystems corresponding to the rapid spread of digital technologies, regulatory and legal aspects of the Russian economy digitalization, the development of digital technologies in EAEU and BRICS foreign trade, and the corresponding law enforcement measures. The book is intended for academics and practitioners, as well as anyone interested in the problems of new industrialization and the digital transformation of the economy of business entities, regions, countries and integration unions, and their legal regulation to enhance competitiveness on a national and global scale
“Strategic International Management” takes a global perspective and covers the major aspects of international business strategies, the coordination of international companies and the particularities of international value chain activities and management functions. The book provides a thorough understanding of how Production & Sourcing, Research & Development, Marketing, Human Resource Management and Controlling have to be designed in an international company and what models are available to understand those activities in an international context. The book offers 20 lessons that provide a comprehensive overview of all key issues. Each lesson is accompanied by a case study from an international company to facilitate the understanding of all important factors involved in strategic international management. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated, all case studies revised and recent data were integrated. The concept, though, remained unchanged.
In Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Business Clusters, Panos Piperopoulos provides a comprehensive introduction to what entrepreneurship is all about, how and why entrepreneurs innovate and how innovation systems operate. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) constitute the backbone of most economies, so the author examines their characteristics and the crucial role played by the owners and entrepreneurs who innovate to ensure the survival and continued growth of their firms. He also includes the particular phenomena that arise where the entrepreneurs are either female or from ethnic groups, or where the context is that of a developing region or country. The importance of co-operative strategic alliances and networks between firms is discussed, along with how these strengthen SMEs' competitiveness. The concept of open innovation has been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of innovation and the author presents a hypothetical model for enhancing the competitiveness and performance of SMEs by properly utilizing employees' creative potential, emotional intelligence, tacit knowledge and innovative ideas. The contemporary model of business clusters, involving partnerships with competitors, agents, universities, research centres and local, regional and national governments is discussed. The ways, means and methods through which SMEs' competitiveness and innovation can be enhanced within business clusters is illustrated by cases that identify four types of SMEs, that behave differently and play different roles in the networks and clusters of which they form a part, but all of whose performance and competitiveness is a function of their position and role in the wider scheme of things.
Interorganizational cooperation between partners, markets, and business leaders is an important facet of business and maintaining organizational competitiveness. Understanding how to effectively collaborate with partners in other organizations is an important skill for the success of all parties. Information Acquisitions and Sharing through Inter-Organizational Collaboration: Impacts of Business Performance in China discusses the effectiveness and impact of trust, e-business diffusion, and organizational processes on business performance in cooperative scenarios. Incorporating data from over 500 organizations in China’s manufacturing sector, this book is an essential reference for business leaders, CEOs, senior managers, and all other members of organizations seeking to better collaborate with their partners.
This Handbook provides a collection of high quality contributions on the state of the art in current debates around the concept of regional economic resilience. It provides critical contributions from leading authors in the field, and captures both key theoretical debates around the meaning of resilience, its conceptual framing and utility, as well as empirical interrogation of its key determinants in different international contexts.
Various theories have been put forward as to why business and industry develops in clusters and despite good work being carried out on path dependence and dynamics, this is still very much an emerging topic in the social sciences. To date, no overarching theoretical framework has been developed to show how clusters evolve. Unfolding Cluster Evolution aims to address this gap by presenting theoretical and empirical research on the geography of innovation. This contributed volume seeks to shed light on the understanding of clusters and its dynamic evolution. The book provides evidence to suggest that traditional perspectives from evolutionary economic geography need to be wedded to management thinking in order to reach this point. Bringing together thinking from a range of disciplines and countries across Europe, this book explores a wide range of topics from the capability approach, to network dynamics, to multinational corporations, to firm entry and exit and social capital. This book will be of interest to policy makers and students of urban studies, economic geography, and planning and development.
This is a relatively simple and easy to read introduction of major regional and local economic development theories, their theoretical evolution and other relevant topics such as governance, institutions and local leadership within the globalization context. It also discusses some basic analytical tools and provides a template for them in an easy to use MS Excel spreadsheet application. It introduces conflict management procedures into regional development process and provides a regional decision support framework.