With profound insight into the complexities of the human experience, Harvard psychologist Gordon Allport organized a mass of research to produce a landmark study on the roots and nature of prejudice. First published in 1954, The Nature of Prejudice remains the standard work on discrimination. Allportʹs comprehensive and penetrating work examines all aspects of this age-old problem: its roots in individual and social psychology, its varieties of expression, its impact on the individuals and communities. He explores all kinds of prejudice-racial, religious, ethnic, economic and sexual-and offers suggestions for reducing the devastating effects of discrimination.
On the Nature of Prejudice commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Gordon Allport’s classic work on prejudice and discrimination by examining the current state of knowledge in the field. A distinguished collection of international scholars considers Allport’s impact on the field, reviews recent developments, and identifies promising directions for future investigation. Organized around Allport's central themes, this book provides a state-of-the-art, comprehensive view of where the field has been, where it is now, and where it is going.
This book offers a critical synthesis of social psychology’s contribution to the study of contemporary racism, and proposes a critical reframing of our understanding of prejudice in European society today. Chapters place a special emphasis on the diversity and intensity of prejudices against Romani people in a liberal, progressive, decent, enlarged Europe. Chapters ask how we can reconcile the European creed of law, justice and freedom for all, with social and political practices that exclude and degrade Romani people. This volume addresses the need for a deeper recognition of societal foundations of ideologies of moral exclusion, and calls for a closer and more thorough investigation of prejudices that stem from the societal transformation, diminution or denial of moral worth of human beings (and the various conditions and contexts that create and promote it). By opening new intellectual dialogues, the book reinvigorates a renewed social psychology of racism, and creates a broader foundation for the exploration of the various, active paradoxes at the heart of the social expression of prejudice in liberal democracies. The Nature of Prejudice is essential reading for academics, researchers and postgraduate students interested in both the quantitative and qualitative study of discrimination, inequality and social exclusion.
The point of departure for this manuscript is the classical book of the same title by Gordon Allport. As excited as I was when I first read the book, I now feel that it was too limited in scope. Allport, immersed in his own culture, was taking for granted a particular assumption, which forms the basis of my book: that the nature of prejudice solely concerns the prejudice of humans towards other humans. The key concepts of Allport's work are summarized, & shown to represent a form of "horizontal" prejudice. It is proposed that a more fundamental form of prejudice is "vertical" or hierarchical, & relates to an overlay or projection by the human brain upon all of external reality. A nontechnical discussion of biological evolution is integrated into the philosophical & sociological text to present the human brain & its behavior as a product of biological evolution. Thus, the reader is made aware of the existence of vertical prejudice & will be able to understand its origins. Order from Barry Zeeburg, 4378 N. Pershing Drive #1, Arlington, VA 22203 or phone 703-525-7036.
With his 1954 book The Nature of Prejudice, American psychologist Gordon Allport displays the crucial skill of reasoning, producing and organizing an argument that was persuasive enough to have a major impact not only in universities, but also on government policy. The question that Allport tackled was an old one: why are people so disposed to prejudice against those from other groups? Earlier psychologists had suggested a number of reasons, especially in the case of racial prejudice. Some had suggested that racism was a learned behaviour, conditioned by negative experiences of other races; others that there was an objective rationale to negative racial stereotypes. Allport, however, reasoned that prejudice is essentially a by-product of the necessary mental shortcuts the human brain uses to process the vast amount of information it takes in. Because our brains want to use as little effort as possible, they regularly fall back on simple stereotypes – which easily generate prejudice. Gathering strong evidence for this hypothesis, he reasoned, clearly and persuasively, that our natural cognitive approach is the most significant factor in accounting for prejudice. Going further still, Allport also reasoned that, once this was better understood, social scientists would be able to influence policy-makers to curb discrimination by law.
A collection of classic and contemporary readings that have contributed to our understanding of prejudice from a social- psychological perspective, with a substantial introduction and commentaries preceding each reading.
Modern social psychology has devoted a significant share of its resources to the study of human prejudice. Most research to date has focused on those groups that exhibit prejudice. However, a number of recent studies have begun to investigate prejudice from the perspective of its targets. These studies have shown prejudice to be a powerful stressor that places unique and costly demands on its targets. They have also identified a number of strategies that targets of prejudice use to cope with their predicaments. These findings hold real promise for scholars of early Christianity, for not only were early Christians frequently the targets of religious prejudice - they were to become its perpetrators soon enough! - but much of what they wrote sought either directly or indirectly to address this problem. In this study, Paul A. Holloway applies the findings of social psychology to the early Christian pseudepigraphon known as 1 Peter. He argues that 1 Peter marks one of the earliest attempts by a Christian author to craft a more or less comprehensive response to anti-Christian prejudice and its outcomes. Unlike later Apologists, however, who also wrote in response to anti-Christian prejudice, the author of 1 Peter does not seek to influence directly the thoughts and actions of those hostile to Christianity, but writes instead for his beleaguered coreligionists, consoling them in their suffering and advising them on how to cope with popular prejudice and the persecution it engendered.
This book offers a bold and controversial new thesis regarding the nature of prejudice. The authors' central claim is that prejudice is not simply learned, rather it is predisposed in all human beings and is thus the foundation for ethical valuation. They aim to destroy the illusion that prejudice is merely the result of learned beliefs, socially conditioned attitudes, or pathological states of development. Contrary to traditional accounts, prejudice itself is not a negative attribute of human nature, rather it is the necessary precondition for the self and civilization to emerge. Defined as the preferential self-expression of valuation, prejudice gives rise to greater existential complexities and novelties that elevate selfhood and society to higher states of ethical realization. Rather than offer another contribution that highlights the destructive nature of prejudice, Mills and Polanowski address the ontological, psychological, and dialectical origins of prejudice as it manifests itself in the process of selfhood and culture. They provide an original conceptualization of the phenomenology of prejudice and its dialectical instantiation in the ontology of the individual, worldhood, and the very structures of subjectivity. As a unique synthesis of psychoanalysis, Hegelian idealism, Heideggerian existential ontology, and Whiteheadian process philosophy, prejudice is the indispensable ground for humanity to actualize its highest potentiality-for-Being. The striking result is (1) a revolutionary theory of human nature, (2) a new ethical system, and (3) the elevation of dialectical ethics to the domain of metaphysics.
Luca Váradi aims to understand the formation of the Hungarian teenagers’ attitudes towards the Roma, as adolescence is a crucial period in identity development. Her objective is to determine to what extent the classical and more recent theories on the formation of prejudice can be applied in a context in which there is no public consensus of respect towards minorities. The author lets the teenagers express their own views to see their world through their eyes, allowing the reader to understand what being prejudiced or tolerant means to these adolescents.
Established psychoanalytic/psychodynamic researchers and theorists bring the exploration of prejudice to a new level by examining how psychoanalysis might elucidate strategies that will eliminate prejudice.
An updated and condensed version of the landmark work on the psychological impact of prejudice and discrimination. • 17 contributors bring diverse and differing perspectives on prejudice and discrimination • Each chapter concludes with a "Toolbox for Change" section, which proposes strategies for eliminating prejudice and discrimination
The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination provides comprehensive coverage on the state of research, critical analysis and promising avenues for further study on prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination. Each chapter presents in-depth reviews of specific topics, describing the current state of knowledge and identifying the most productive new directions for future research. Representing both traditional and emerging perspectives, this multi-disiplinary and truly international volume will serve as a seminal resource for students and scholars.
This Handbook provides a uniquely comprehensive and scholarly overview of the latest research on prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. All chapters are written by eminent prejudice researchers who explore key topics, by presenting an overview of current research and, where appropriate, developing new theory, models, or scales. The volume is clearly structured, with a broad section on cognitive, affective, and neurological processes, followed by chapters on some of the main target groups of prejudice – based on race, sex, age, sexual orientation, and weight. A concluding section explores the issues involved in reducing prejudice. Chapters on the history of research in prejudice and future directions round off this state-of-the-art Handbook. The volume will provide an essential resource for students, instructors, and researchers in social and personality psychology, and also be an invaluable reference for academics and professionals in the fields of sociology, communication studies, gerontology, nursing, medicine, as well as government and policymakers and social service agencies.
This anthology examines Love's Labours Lost from a variety of perspectives and through a wide range of materials. Selections discuss the play in terms of historical context, dating, and sources; character analysis; comic elements and verbal conceits; evidence of authorship; performance analysis; and feminist interpretations. Alongside theater reviews, production photographs, and critical commentary, the volume also includes essays written by practicing theater artists who have worked on the play. An index by name, literary work, and concept rounds out this valuable resource.
This award-winning book provides an analysis of the genetic/evolutionary, cultural/historical, and developmental aspects of prejudice and discrimination. It emphasizes how certain genetic/evolutionary mechanisms are utilized to both produce and prevent prejudice and discrimination from occurring or to modify these behaviors once established. The goals of the book are to help us understand the limitations of interventions and increase tolerance and acceptance of outsiders. Peer Prejudice and Discrimination, Second Edition is ideal for advanced-level courses on prejudice and/or discrimination taught in departments of psychology, education, and sociology, as well as a valuable addition to any serious scholars personal library.
Clinical medicine, as a thinking discipline, is concerned not only with what clinicians do, but why. When physicians act in medicine they have some purpose or goal in mind. What they actually do and how they go about it is in the service of their purposes and their goals. Such goals cover a wide range of topics centering on patients, the doctor-patient relationship, the acts of doctoring patients, and the goals involved in being a physician among other physicians working within the institutions of medicine. The Nature of Clinical Medicine takes its direction from a catalog of goals of medicine that range from the expected diagnosis and treatment of diseases to wider concerns for patients, for physicians, and for medicine itself. The chapters are specific in teaching the kinds of knowledge that clinicians require in order to be able to achieve these goals. The central focus of the clinician and of this book is the patient. According to Eric Cassell, everything else, including the disease, is secondary. Using many examples from real-life medical practice, each chapter examines the different kinds of thought involved in caring for the patient. Cassell takes on a variety of difficult issues, from thinking about values to developing wisdom. The care of the dying, what thinking itself is, and finally, why would one want to do this exciting and rewarding but difficult work, come under discussion in this book.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Primary education in Europe, as in the United States and other conti nents, is passing through a period of profound change, affecting some of the fundamental educational aims at primary school level and teaching structure, content and methods. The purpose of this study is to sketch a broad picture of the Euro pean educational scene which may be brought about by the impact of innovation in industrialised countries. We are only too aware of the difficulties inherent in our task. Even when projections and forecasts are firmly rooted in an analysis of existing data, they are liable to be contradicted by the facts. We shall attempt to allow for those alternative situations which may provide the context for the organisation and functioning of primary education. We make no claim to portray the European primary school at the end of the twentieth or at the beginning of the twenty-first century. We shall do no more than analyse existing achievements and experiments based on research in the associated fields of education, psychology and sociology and from this analysis extrapolate a series of forecasts based on objective factors of a social and intellectual nature, offering realistic hypotheses for the future. Our aim is to provide sound guidelines for those who are to build a better future for our children.