Science

The Social Biology of Wasps

Author: Kenneth G. Ross

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 673

In this edited collection, 17 internationally known authorities bring together the results of recent research on the natural history, ecology, behavior, morphology, and genetics of wasps as they pertain to the evolution of social behavior. The first part of the book opens with a review of the classification of the family Vespidae along with a revision of the subfamily Polistinae. Seven subsequent chapters deal with the natural history and social biology of each of the major taxa of social and presocial vespids. The second part of the book offers chapters on reproductive competition; worker polyethism; evolution of nest architecture, of queen number and queen control, and of exocrine glands; population genetics; the nutritional bsis of social evolution; and the nest as the locus of social life. The final chapter is a comparative discussion of social behavior in the Sphecidae, the only family of wasps besides the Vespidae in which well-developed social behavior is known. Providing a wealth of information about the biology of wasps, this comprehensive, up-to-date volume will be an essential reference for entomologists, evolutionary biologists, behavioral ecologists, ethologists, and zoologists. Contributors: James M. Carpenter. David P. Cowan. Holly A Downing. Raghavendra Gadagkar. Albert Greene. James H. Hunt. Robert L. Jeanne. Makoto Matsuura. Robert W. Matthews. Hudson K. Reeve. PeterFrank Roseler. Kenneth G. Ross. J. Philip Spradbery. Christopher K. Starr. Stefano Turillazzi. John W. Wenzel. Mary Jane West-Eberhard.
Science

The Biology of Hover Wasps

Author: Stefano Turillazzi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 238

This book represents the culmination of the author’s lifetime work on a single fascinating group of insects, the hover wasps, Stenogastrinae. The author explores the biology of these little-known wasps at the threshold of sociality, presenting an ambitious survey of ideas about their evolution and an assessment of the current standing of controversial concepts. Following taxonomic and morphological descriptions, the behaviour, colonial dynamics, social communication and especially the remarkably diverse nests of wasps are discussed. Compared to the better-known species of paper wasps, hornets and yellow jackets, the hover wasps show various peculiarities, such as characteristics of immature brood rearing, nest defence and mating systems. The nest architecture probably presents the most variable solutions in social wasps and is characterized by an astonishing level of camouflage, making these insects an interesting example of special adaptation to forest environments.
Science

The Evolution of Social Wasps

Author: James H. Hunt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 163

Social behavior occurs in some of the smallest animals as well as some the largest, and the transition from solitary life to sociality is an unsolved evolutionary mystery. In The Evolution of Social Wasps, James H. Hunt examines social behavior in a single lineage of insects, wasps of the family Vespidae. He presents empirical knowledge of social wasps from two approaches, one that focuses on phylogeny and life history and one that focuses on individual ontogeny, colony development, and population dynamics. He also provides an extensive summary of the existing literature while demonstrating how it can be clouded by theory. Hunt's fresh approach to the conflicting literature on sociality highlights how oft repeated models can become fixed in the thinking of the scientific community. Instead, Hunt presents a mechanistic scenario for the evolution of sociality in wasps that changes our perspective on kin selection, the paradigm that has dominated thinking about social evolution since the 1970s. This innovative new model integrates life history, nutrition, fitness and ecology in which social insect biologists will find a rich storehouse of ideas and information, and behavioral ecologists will find a bracing challenge to long accepted models. Engagingly written, bold, and provocative, The Evolution of Social Wasps marks a milestone in our understanding of one of lifes major evolutionary transitions - the origin of social behavior.
Science

The Social Biology of Ropalidia marginata

Author: Raghavendra GADAGKAR

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 498

In this book, the biologist Raghavendra Gadagkar focuses on the single species he has worked on throughout his career. His years of study have led him to believe that ecological, physiological, and demographic factors can be more important than genetic relatedness in the selection for or against social traits.
Science

Neotropical Social Wasps

Author: Fabio Prezoto

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 994

This book provides updated information on this intriguing and exciting group of insects: Neotropical Social Wasps. These insects have a particular biology and their colonies are formed by a few cooperative females living in either small or massive, structured nests where stinging individuals organize their activities and defend their offspring. Topics include evolutionary aspects, biogeography, post-embryonic development, community behavior and ecology, economic importance, and research methods.
Medical

Comparative Social Evolution

Author: Dustin R. Rubenstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 484

View: 452

Darwin famously described special difficulties in explaining social evolution in insects. More than a century later, the evolution of sociality - defined broadly as cooperative group living - remains one of the most intriguing problems in biology. Providing a unique perspective on the study of social evolution, this volume synthesizes the features of animal social life across the principle taxonomic groups in which sociality has evolved. The chapters explore sociality in a range of species, from ants to primates, highlighting key natural and life history data and providing a comparative view across animal societies. In establishing a single framework for a common, trait-based approach towards social synthesis, this volume will enable graduate students and investigators new to the field to systematically compare taxonomic groups and reinvigorate comparative approaches to studying animal social evolution.

Vibratory Communication in the Social Paper Wasp Polistes Dominulus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

Author: Bernard Joseph Brennan

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 272

View: 564

I conducted an investigation into the function of the "abdominal wagging" (AW) behavior performed by adult wasps in the species Polistes dominulus. Based on an extensive literature review, I conclude that vibratory communication is probably common and widespread among social wasps, in large part because of a number of likely pre-adaptations, especially the raising of brood on light-weight, rigid nests. The prevalence and importance of vibration among wasps has not been previously recognized, and the potential richness of examining communication signals that provide windows onto many interesting evolutionary conflicts within animal societies has not been explored in these speciose, diverse and cosmopolitan taxa. Using synchronized video and nest-mounted accelerometer recordings, I quantitatively describe the AW behavior, and, for the first time in Polistinae, characterize the resulting signals (i.e. the substrate vibrations that propagate to receivers through the nest), and describe their method of percussive production. Through experimental manipulation of the adult's signaling context, I demonstrate that the presence of larvae, the putative signal receivers, is necessary for the production of AW. Food deprivation experiments establish that the availability of food affects AW rate. By experimentally manipulating the satiety levels of adults and larvae independently, I demonstrate that adult hunger, but not larval hunger, cause changes in AW signaling. Specifically, I found that food deprived adults increase their signaling rate when food becomes available. Experimental presentation to larvae of recorded AW vibrations confirms that larvae detect vibrations, and that they respond by increasing the amount of saliva they give to adults. These results, from both the sender's and receiver's perspectives, support the hypothesis that AW functions as a vibratory saliva solicitation signal by which adults beg for nutritious salivary secretions from their larvae. However, the larval response to playback can be reversed by manipulating the prior experience of larvae. Advantages of this type of larval learning are discussed in the context of withhold saliva from undesirable recipients and with reference to competitive transactions among colony members. This view proposes a far more active and dynamic role for larvae in the transactions of social living than previously considered.