The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an area of growing interest for many people studying the urban environment and local/global climate change. The UHI has been scientifically studied for 200 years and, although it is an apparently simple phenomenon, there is considerable confusion around the different types of UHI and their assessment. The Urban Heat Island—A Guidebook provides simple instructions for measuring and analysing the phenomenon, as well as greater context for defining the UHI and the impacts it can have. Readers will be empowered to work within a set of guidelines that enable direct comparison of UHI effects across diverse settings, while informing a wide range of climate mitigation and adaptation programs to modify human behaviour and the built form. This opens the door to true global assessments of local climate change in cities. Urban planning and design strategies can then be evaluated for their effectiveness at mitigating these changes. Covers both on-surface and near-surface, or canopy, measurements and impacts of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) Provides a set of best practices and guidelines for UHI observation and analysis Includes both conceptual overviews and practical instructions for a wide range of uses
This book discusses the concepts and technologies associated with the mitigation of urban heat islands (UHIs) that are applicable in hot and humid regions. It presents several city case studies on how UHIs can be reduced in various areas to provide readers, researchers, and policymakers with insights into the concepts and technologies that should be considered when planning and constructing urban centres and buildings. The rapid development of urban areas in hot and humid regions has led to an increase in urban temperatures, a decrease in ventilation in buildings, and a transformation of the once green outdoor environment into areas full of solar-energy-absorbing concrete and asphalt. This situation has increased the discomfort of people living in these areas regardless of whether they occupy concrete structures. This is because indoor and outdoor air quality have both suffered from urbanisation. The development of urban areas has also increased energy consumption so that the occupants of buildings can enjoy indoor thermal comfort and air quality that they need via air conditioning systems. This book offers solutions to the recent increase in the number of heat islands in hot and humid regions.
The expansion without precedent of city boundaries determined the modification of the climatic conditions inside urban areas, with a direct impact on the environment and the population. Urban development implies fundamental changes in the natural setting, generating significant differences between the urban environment and the nearby areas in terms of meteorological parameters, air quality, and energy balance. Over the last decades, cities worldwide have experienced accelerated development, urbanization being one of the most important dimensions of global change. In Eastern Europe, another important matter is the forced industrialization from the communist era which lead to a complex process of urban change. This change influenced the urban climate of post-socialist cities. In such cities, the urban landscape was radically transformed with the emergence of over-sized production units and “dormitory neighborhoods” meant to accommodate their personnel. The replacement of natural surfaces with the built, impervious ones (with distinct caloric properties and lower cooling rates), is known as one of the main factors that generate the urban heat island effect. The topic of this book refers, therefore, to the urban heat island (UHI), as an example of climate change of anthropic origin, and to its atmospheric, biologic and economic impact (Yow 2007). The UHI phenomenon implies a temperature difference between the densely built urban areas and the nearby rural ones.
Global Urban Heat Island Mitigation provides a comprehensive picture of global UHI micro-thermal interaction in different built environments. The book explains physical principles and how to moderate undesirable consequences of swift and haphazard urban development to create more sustainable and resilient cities. Sections provide extensive discussion on numerous UHI mitigation technologies and their effectiveness in cities around the globe. In addition, the book proposes novel UHI mitigation technologies and strategies while also assessing the effectiveness and suitability of UHI mitigation interventions in various climates and urban forms. Adopts a multidisciplinary approach, bridging theoretical and applied urban climatology with urban heat mitigation Compiles disparate urban climate research concepts and technologies into a coherent framework Includes contributions from leaders in fields from around the globe
This book is relevant to architects, urban designers, planners, and policy makers concerned with enhancing climate-sensitive urban form and planning. It discusses building and neighborhood design: layout and design features that maximize energy efficiency and thermal comfort without compromising the ability of other buildings to enjoy similar benefits; the use of interstitial spaces (piazzas, streets, and parks) to improve the microclimate at the neighbourhood-level; design intervention case studies; innovative uses of interstitial spaces to improve the local climate at the neighborhood level; and urban radiative cooling solutions to mitigate the unintended climate consequences of urban growth and suggestions for ways forward.
Conventional air conditioning is not a sustainable solution to the challenge of a hot or humid climate. The climate problem is compounded in so-called Urban Heat Islands, urban areas where the air can be 3–5°C hotter than its surrounding areas and where pollution levels are consequently raised. Including a colour section with thermal images and maps, this book explores the complex relationships between climate, buildings and plants, especially in urban heat islands. These relationships bear very critically on a range of environmental issues and point to some corresponding solutions. One chapter highlights some of the extensive research work carried out in Singapore, especially investigating the thermal benefits of greenery in buildings in the urban setting. Though several books have been written on urban heat islands, this work uniquely examines the linkages between climate, buildings and plants. It forms a reference for researchers and professionals such as architects, architectural science, landscape architects, building services engineers, urban planners and urban climatologists. It may also be useful for final year undergraduates or graduate students in these disciplines.
Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)
In the past decades, protecting the urban environment in the face of environmentalism and environmental rights has become crucial to saving the planet from the dangers of the rapid urban development of new cities and societies. Air temperature is one of the factors influenced by climate change and contemporary city morphology that lacks compact city features. Contemporary cities have taken on global paradigms, adopting open-fabric, multiple, and ultrahigh residential towers and superhuman-scale spaces at the level of squares and public parks. This type of planning results in a radical thermal transformation not only in the movement and transportation network, but also in all public spaces and their external spaces. It is essential to understand the dimensions and principles of urban planning and design in conjunction with the competence of environmental design to reduce the impact of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. Remapping Urban Heat Island Atlases in Regenerative Cities focuses on public health and wellbeing, decent work and economic growth, sustainable cities and societies, and climate action. It presents atlases of UHI-based digital techniques and methods of modelling as well as the use of these atlases, mapping, and models in exploring the placemaking problems in the new cities. Covering topics such as artificial intelligence, pedestrian density mapping, and urban heat island mitigation, this premier reference source is a critical resource for architects, city planners, urban planners, city officials, government officials, policymakers, non-profit organizations, politicians, engineers, libraries, students and educators of higher education, researchers, and academicians.
Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.
Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands helps the reader understand the relative performance of these adaptation measures, methods and analysis relating to their creation and maintenance, evaluation methods, and the role of policy and governance in implementing them. A suite of case studies is included on these urban or metropolitan areas that are significantly warmer than their surrounding rural areas due to human activities. In recent years, a suite of adaptation measures have been developed to mitigate the urban heat island phenomena. Provides a range of concrete implementation methods Assesses relative performance of adaptation measures and countermeasure technologies Establishes methods for human thermal environmental interventions Reviews adaptation cities selected for excellent energy performance and thermal comfort indicators