The Yearbook of Polar Law is based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland and the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland, Finland and covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include: - human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge, - local, national, regional and international governance issues, - environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species, - regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources, - law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims, - territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea, - peace and security, dispute settlement, - jurisdictional and other issues with regard to the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting, - trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and - the roles and actual involvement of international organisations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs. The papers in this volume are based on presentations at the 10th Polar Law Symposium, held in Rovaniemi in November 2017.
This book is a pioneering effort in critical Arctic studies. The contributions identify and investigate some of the blind spots in human development in the Arctic that research in the social sciences had yet to broach. To this end, the authors tap a variety of critical approaches in fields spanning aesthetics, affect theory, biopolitics, critical geopolitics, Indigenous archaeology, intersectionality, legal anthropology, moral economy, narrative studies, neoliberal governmentality, queer studies and socio-legal studies. The chapters probe topics such as representations of the Arctic in contemporary art, the role of affects in postcolonial Greenland, Canada’s Arctic policies and China’s engagement with the Arctic. The book provides a rich knowledge base for researchers in Arctic social sciences and offers an absorbing textbook for students interested in Arctic issues.
This book constructs a multidisciplinary approach to human security questions related to digitalisation in the European High North i.e. the northernmost areas of Scandinavia, Finland and North-Western Russia. It challenges the mainstream conceptualisation of cybersecurity and reconstructs it with the human being as the referent object of security.
This comprehensive and innovative volume focuses on the usefulness and relevance of extending the scope of protections already in place for national minorities ('old minorities') to migrant populations ('new minorities') in Europe. Delving into a highly relevant but under-researched issue, the book examines the feasibility of expanding the system of protection for national minorities to migrant groups, as well as considering issues of diversity, security, socio-economic concerns and identity. Taking a multidisciplinary perspective, and combining insights from political science, law, sociology and anthropology, it asks the central question of how far the extension of policies and rights currently specific to national minorities is conceptually meaningful and beneficial to the integration of ‘new’ minorities. In doing so, it questions the feasibility and appropriateness of extending the scope of the protections already in place for national minorities to other categories of population. This book will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners of European Union politics, migration studies, minority studies and more broadly of sociology, international law and human rights.
Anthropocene Antarctica offers new ways of thinking about the ‘Continent for Science and Peace’ in a time of planetary environmental change. In the Anthropocene, Antarctica has become central to the Earth’s future. Ice cores taken from its interior reveal the deep environmental history of the planet and warming ocean currents are ominously destabilising the glaciers around its edges, presaging sea-level rise in decades and centuries to come. At the same time, proliferating research stations and tourist numbers challenge stereotypes of the continent as the ‘last wilderness.’ The Anthropocene brings Antarctica nearer in thought, entangled with our everyday actions. If the Anthropocene signals the end of the idea of Nature as separate from humans, then the Antarctic, long considered the material embodiment of this idea, faces a radical reframing. Understanding the southern polar region in the twenty-first century requires contributions across the disciplinary spectrum. This collection paves the way for researchers in the Environmental Humanities, Law and Social Sciences to engage critically with the Antarctic, fostering a community of scholars who can act with natural scientists to address the globally significant environmental issues that face this vitally important part of the planet.
Based on a study of wilderness protection in three Arctic countries, Antje Neumann identifies numerous ‘lessons learnt’ which could improve the protection of Antarctica’s wilderness, in particular with regard to the increasing and diversifying tourism in the region.
This collection documents, analyses, and reflects on the Icelandic constitutional reform between 2009 and 2017. It offers a unique insight into this process by providing first-hand accounts of its different stages and core issues. Its 12 substantive chapters are written by the main actors in the reform, including the Chair of the Constitutional Council that drafted the 2011 Proposal for a New Constitution. Part I opens with an address by the President of the Republic and positions the constitutional reform in its full complexity and longer-term perspective, going beyond the frequent portrayal of that process in international discussion as being solely a result of the 2008 financial crisis. Part II offers a nuanced and contextualised reflection on Iceland’s innovative approach to consultation and drafting involving lay participants, including its twenty-first-century digital take on ‘the people,’ which attracted international attention as ‘crowdsourcing.’ Part III analyses the main constitutional amendment proposals, and focuses on natural resources and environmental protection, which lie at the heart of Iceland’s identity. The final part reflects on the reform’s wider significance and includes an interview with the current Prime Minister, who is now taking the reform forward. The volume provides a basis for reflection on a groundbreaking constitutional reform in a democratic context. This long and complex process has challenged and transformed the ways in which constitutional change can be approached, and the collection is an invitation to discuss further the practical and theoretical dimensions of Iceland’s experience and their far-reaching implications.
The Polar North is known to be home to large gas and oil reserves and its position holds significant trading and military advantages, yet the maritime boundaries of the region remain ill-defined. In the twenty-first century the Arctic is undergoing profound change. As the sea ice melts, a result of accelerating climate change, global governance has become vital. In this, the third of three volumes, the latest research and analysis from the world's leading Arctic research body - the Fridtjof Nansen Institute - is brought together for the first time. Arctic Governance: Norway, Russia and Asia investigates the foreign policy discourses of Arctic governance, specifically as regarding international relations and competing interests between Norway, Russia and various Asian states.
This handbook brings together the expertise of Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars to offer a comprehensive overview of issues surrounding the well-being, self-determination and sustainability of Indigenous peoples in the Arctic. Offering multidisciplinary insights from leading figures, this handbook highlights Indigenous challenges, approaches and solutions to pressing issues in Arctic regions, such as a warming climate and the loss of biodiversity. It furthers our understanding of the Arctic experience by analyzing how people not only survive but thrive in the planet’s harshest climate through their innovation, ingenuity and agency to tackle rapidly changing environments and evolving political, social, economic and cultural conditions. The book is structured into three distinct parts that cover key topics in recent and future research with Indigenous Peoples in the Arctic. The first part examines the diversity of Indigenous peoples and their cultural expressions in the different Arctic states. It also focuses on the well-being of Indigenous peoples in the Arctic regions. The second part relates to the identities and livelihoods that Indigenous peoples in Arctic regions derive from the resources in their environments. This interconnection between resources and people’s identities underscores their entitlements to use their lands and resources. The third and final part provides insights into the political involvement of Indigenous peoples from local all the way to the international level and their right to self-determination and some of the recent related topics in this field. This book offers a novel contribution to Arctic studies, empowering Indigenous research for the future and rebuilding the image of Indigenous peoples as proactive participants, signaling their pivotal role in the co-production of knowledge. It will appeal to scholars and students of law, political sciences, geography, anthropology, Arctic studies and environmental studies, as well as policy-makers and professionals.
Against the backdrop of climate change and tectonic political shifts in world politics, this handbook provides an overview of the most crucial geopolitical and security related issues in the Arctic. It discusses established shareholder's policies in the Arctic – those of Russia, Canada, the USA, Denmark, and Norway – as well as the politics and interests of other significant or future stakeholders, including China and India. Furthermore, it explains the economic situation and the legal framework that governs the Arctic, and the claims that Arctic states have made in order to expand their territories and exclusive economic zones. While illustrating the collaborative approach, represented by institutions such as the Arctic council, which has often been described as an exceptional institution in this region, the contributing authors examine potential resource and power conflicts between Arctic nations, due to competing interests. The authors also address topics such as changing alliances between Arctic nations, new sea lines of communication, technological shifts, and eventually the return to power politics in the area. Written by experts on international security studies and the Arctic, as well as practitioners from government institutions and international organizations, the book provides an invaluable source of information for anyone interested in geopolitical shifts and security issues in the High North.