In his Essays in the Theory of Business Cycle published in Polish in 1933, Kalecki clearly stated the principle of effective demand in mathematical form. By 1935 he outlined his theory of employment, demolished the then-orthodox remedy for a depression-that is, wage cutting-and pinpointed the importance of investment for economic dynamics. Thus, although his training had been in Marxist economics, he succeeded in anticipating the Keynesian system, and, as Joan Robinson has pointed out, his claim to priority of publication is indisputable although he never mentioned this fact.
A rigorous and example-driven introduction to topics in economic dynamics, with an emphasis on mathematical and computational techniques for modeling dynamic systems. This text provides an introduction to the modern theory of economic dynamics, with emphasis on mathematical and computational techniques for modeling dynamic systems. Written to be both rigorous and engaging, the book shows how sound understanding of the underlying theory leads to effective algorithms for solving real world problems. The material makes extensive use of programming examples to illustrate ideas. These programs help bring to life the abstract concepts in the text. Background in computing and analysis is offered for readers without programming experience or upper-level mathematics. Topics covered in detail include nonlinear dynamic systems, finite-state Markov chains, stochastic dynamic programming, stochastic stability and computation of equilibria. The models are predominantly nonlinear, and the emphasis is on studying nonlinear systems in their original form, rather than by means of rudimentary approximation methods such as linearization. Much of the material is new to economics and improves on existing techniques. For graduate students and those already working in the field, Economic Dynamics will serve as an essential resource.
Elements of a Nonlinear Theory of Economic Dynamics provides both a framework and a survey of its needs. First, principle results and techniques of the theory relevant to applications in dynamic economics are discussed, then their application in view of older endogenous cycle theories are considered in a unified mathematical framework. Models incorporating the government budget constraint and the Goodwin model are analysed using the method of averaging and the centre manifold theory. The dynamic instability problem is solved by placing models in a nonlinear framework.
The theory of economic development is a branch of economic dynamics. Any discussion of the theory must involve dynamics even though not all dynamic problems are necessarily related to economic development. The theory's primary locus is upon the nice paths of economic variables. Stationary states, which have been the main concern of modem economic development theory, are actually special cases of economic dynamics. In this study, we propose an economic development theory within the framework of input-output systems and neoclassical economics. No political problems will be dealt with, although this does not mean that questions such as why Japan had a higher growth rate than China in the past are not important. Similarly, rather than dealing with the psychological and institutional aspects of in economic development processes we only suggest ways (or methods, as Hicks would call them) for analyzing what determines economic development from the point of view of "pure" economics. Our main contribution to economic growth theory is that we investigate various nonlinear dynamic phenomena such as bifurcations and economic cycles. We emphasize that oscillations and structural changes are not rare but universal in a progressive economy. No economic system can be stabilized forever if change is permitted.