Alltranslation is a compromise-the effort to be literal and the e. ffort to be idiomatic BenjaminJowett (1817-93) This book is designed to provide intermediate and advanced students of English with practice in the translation ofDutch texts into English. It contains fifty prose passages, most of them taken from recent Dutch novels or journals, all of them tried out on several generations of our own students in the 'pre-kandidaatsfase' of their studies at the English Department of the University of Nijmegen. In these respects, it is not spectacularly different from many other books ofits kind. We have, however, tried to offer the student rather more support in his translation work than is usually clone: each text is provided with a suggested translation of the first few lines and with notes containing information on grammar and idiom, sometimes preceded by supplementary material from British or American sources. The second part of the book comprises a short contrastive grammar speciallywritten to meet theneeds oftheuser. In this way wehope to offer a self-contained translation course which reinforces the interdependence of grammar, vocabulary, textual interpretation and style. Most ofthe texts in this book are reproduced in substantially the sameform and wording as in the original sources. In some cases editing was necessary in order, for example, to reduce long articles to more manageable proportions. In no cases, however, were we moved to doctor the originals in order to disambiguate them or to make them easier to translate.
In this contrastive French-English grammar, the comparisons between French structures and their English equivalents are formulated as rules which associate a French schema (of a particular grammatical structure) with its translation into an equivalent English schema. The grammar contains all the rules giving the English equivalents under translation of the principal grammatical structures of French: the verb phrase, the noun phrase and the adjuncts (modifiers). In addition to its intrinsic linguistic interest, this comparative grammar has two important applications. The translation equivalences it contains can provide a firm foundation for the teaching of the techniques of translation. Furthermore, such a comparative grammar is a necessary preliminary to any program of machine translation, which needs a set of formal rules, like those given here for the French-to-English case, for translating into a target language the syntactic structures encountered in the source language.
Modern Chinese Grammar provides a comprehensive coverage of Chinese grammar through the clause-pivot theory and the double triangle approach, first proposed by Fuyi Xing in 1996. Translated into English for the first time, the book is widely regarded by linguists as a seminal text, and ground-breaking in linguistics research. The book contains discussion of the topics which are essential to Chinese grammar, from words and phrases, to complex sentences and sentence groups. It addresses such controversial issues as word class identification, the distinction between words and phrases, and between clauses and complex sentences. The book also shows, through a wealth of examples, how the clause-pivot theory and the double triangle approach can be applied productively in grammatical studies. Modern Chinese Grammar: A Clause-Pivot Theoretical Approach is an essential purchase for researchers and graduate students of Chinese grammar and syntax.
Taking a broadly chronological approach, this volume of original essays traces the origins of the concept of 'grammar'. In doing so, it charts the social, moral and cultural factors that have shaped the development of grammar from Antiquity, via the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Modern Europe, to current education systems and language learning pedagogy. The chapters examine key turning points in the history of language teaching epistemology, focusing on grammar for 'foreign' language teaching across different European cultural contexts. Bringing together leading scholars of classical and modern languages education, this book offers the first single-source reference on the evolving concept of grammar across cultural and linguistic borders in Western language education. It therefore represents a valuable resource for teachers, teacher-educators and course designers, as well as students and scholars of historical linguistics, and of second and foreign language education.
In this contrastive grammar the comparisons between French and English structures are formulated as rules which associate a French schema with its translation into an equivalent English one. In doing so, the text presents the general principles needed to build a new translation procedure.
Today English has almost become indispensable in India and abroad, as it is considered to be a standard, international language of communication across the globe. Hence, learning this language has become a necessity, irrespective of one's age, sex, colour or race.English Grammar And Usage is an altogether different and unique book for understanding and learning the language easily and quickly by writing and speaking innumerable readymade sentences given in the book on each topic of Grammar, without actually studying English Grammar in detail and without the help of one's own mother tongue. There are different types of Sentence Structures available in the book in the easiest possible forms that make it very user-friendly and interesting for readers of all age groups, especially the student section, who wish to know the language correctly and thoroughly.The book is a result of insistent and practical research of around18 years by the author, when he was in the Solomon Public School accompanied by a number of teachers at various levels, and compiled together as one comprehensive book. Read on to find more...
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, EvoMUSART 2017, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in April 2017, co-located with the Evo*2017 events EuroGP, EvoCOP and EvoApplications. The 24 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 29 submissions. The papers cover a wide range of topics and application areas, including: generative approaches to music, graphics, game content, and narrative; music information retrieval; computational aesthetics; the mechanics of interactive evolutionary computation; computer-aided design; and the art theory of evolutionary computation.
This logical, developmental presentation of the major aspects of Japanese grammar includes all the necessary tools for speech and comprehension. Designed for adults with limited learning time who wish to acquire the basics of everyday Japanese, this grammar features numerous shortcuts and timesavers. Ideal as an introduction, supplement, or refresher.
Most of thye B Ed courses in India include 'Teaching of English' as an essential component of the curriculum. The main focus of such courses is on different teaching methods, teaching of prose and poetry, developing reading and writing skills and the teaching of applied grammar. Teaching of English: A Practical Course for B Ed Studients, offers insights into the above-mentioned topics for both in-service and prospective teachers, to develop necessary strategies for teaching English effectively and efficiently in the class. Part I examines the history of English in India, its present position and role in our schools, etc. Part II considers the different teaching methods and their implications for teaching English at the secondary stage. Part III concentrates on developing reading and writing skills, identifies 'bad' reading ahbits, describes the essentials of good handwriting, etc. Part IV considers the importance of teaching prose and poetry in the class and suggests ways to make their teaching/ learning more effective. It also discusses the different types of tests and suggests remedial measures that a teacher can undertake to prevent the mistakes that students commit while using English effectively. Part V discusses different kinds of grammars and the teaching of grammar.