Historical Perspective In 1842, in a paper entitled "Further Development of a General Law of Vital Periodicity", which was part of a series of seven Lancet papers on periodicities in health and disease, Thomas Laycock wrote: "As everything finite must have a period within which its existence is circumscribed, so every period so circumscribing the finite, being a measure of time, must be divisible into lesser periods. But it has always been found easier to reason from generals to particulars than to ascend from particulars to generals, especially in questions in volving the phenomena of life" (p. 423). From a historical perspec tive, Laycock's insight indeed anticipated the progress of chronobio logic research. In spite of the abundant evidence pointing at the existence of short-term rhythms with periodicities much shorter than 24 hours, termed "ultradian" rhythms after Halberg (1964), it has gen erally been found much easier to investigate circadian rather than uI tradian rhythms. In m~st cases, ultradian rhythms have been ignored, or dismissed as insignificant phenomena, even in cases where they could be easily "eyeballed" in the data. Laycock himself believed that the most basic periodicity in vital phenomena was 12 hours. Short-term fluctuations in the levels of certain behaviors, which could not be accounted for by external stimulation or by internal stimuli, have been known to ethologists and other observers of animal behavior for many years.
Tush, my good lord, this superficial tale Is but a preface of her worthy praise; King Henry the Sixth: Part I, Act V, Sc. 5 This volume is the direct result of a NATO. Advanced Study Institute (ASI) of the same title, held at Bishop's University, Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada in August 1991. All the major presentations had been commissioned, so to speak, during the organisational phase. This was done with the view of not only having a structured ASI, whIch is expected to be a high-level tutorial activity, but also the ensuing volume. As will be indicated in the general introduction, there have been a couple of meetings and publications dealing with rhythms in fishes in the past twenty years. However, as in other disciplines, there has been substantial progress in this field also. Further, I wished to cover almost all aspects and come out with a volme which will be as complete as possible. Of course, this failed to materialise. In spite of starting the arrangements two years before the event, several lecturers were not able to attend due to a number of reasons. Some could be replaced while others could not Taking into account their individual specialties, I asked about twenty active workers in the field to provide provoking overviews, not simply reviews of their own work. Also, this being a NATO.
As technology has made imaging of the brain noninvasive and inexpensive, nearly every psychologist in every subfield is using pictures of the brain to show biological connections to feelings and behavior. Handbook of Neuroscience for the Behavioral Sciences, Volume I provides psychologists and other behavioral scientists with a solid foundation in the increasingly critical field of neuroscience. Current and accessible, this volume provides the information they need to understand the new biological bases, research tools, and implications of brain and gene research as it relates to psychology.
Sleep-wake disorders frequently give rise to severe ailments and varied distresses in a great number of people in the world, disturbing their physical and mental activities and their social function. Sleep-wake disorders are now classified into a great number of cate gories according to their clinical features and etiological factors. Patients with sleep-wake disorders are taken care of not only by specialists for such disorders but also by general physicians and specialists of different physical and mental disorders. In the recent years, the nature of sleep and sleep-wake disorders have been intensively studied by investiga tors belonging to different fields of science including medicine, biology, and psychology in many countries. It is very important for the progress of research that investigators work ing in the related fields in different countries meet together and exchange their findings and ideas. The Japanese-German International Symposium on Sleep-Wake Disorders was held on October 9-10th, 1996 in the old, beautiful city of Erfurt (Germany). This symposium was organized by Professor Karlheinz Meier-Ewert (Schwalmstadt, Germany) and Dr. Masako Okawa (Ichikawa, Japan), with support of the German Society of Sleep Research (President at that time, Professor J. H. Peter) and of the Japanese Society of Sleep Research (President at that time, Professor Y. Hishikawa).
Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists
The Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology series deals with the aspects of neurosciences that have the most direct and immediate bearing on behavior. It presents the most current research available in the specific areas of sensory modalities. This volume explores circadian rhythms.
We seek to throw down the gauntlet with this handbook, challenging the he gemony of the "behavioral medicine" approach to the psychological study and treatment of the physically ill. This volume is not another in that growing surfeit oftexts that pledge allegiance to the doctrinaire purity of behavioristic thinking, or conceptualize their subject in accord with the sterility of medical models. Diseases are not our focus, nor is the narrow band of behavioral assessment and therapy methodologies. Rather, we have sought to redefine this amorphous, yet burgeoning field so as to place it squarely within the province of a broadly-based psychology-specifically, the emerging, substantive discipline of health psy chology and the well-established professionalism and diverse technologies of clinical psychology. The handbook's title-Clinical Health Psychology-reflects this reorientation explicitly, and Chapter 1 addresses its themes and provides its justifications more fully. In the process of developing a relevant and comprehensive health assess ment tool, the editors were struck by the failure of clinical psychologists to avail themselves of the rich vein of materials that comprise the psychosocial world of the physically ill. Perhaps more dismaying was the observation that this field was being mined-less than optimally-by physicians and nonclinical psychologists.
Analysis of the equine genome began just over a decade ago, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the horse genome. The availability of the equine whole genome sequence represents the successful completion of an important era of equine genome analysis, and the beginning of a new era where the sequence information will catalyze the development of new tools and resources that will permit study of a range of traits that are economically important and are significant to equine health and welfare. Equine Genomics provides a timely comprehensive overview of equine genomic research. Chapters detail key accomplishments and the current state of research, as well as looking forward to possible applications of genomic technologies to horse breeding, health, and welfare. Equine Genomics delivers a global overview of the topic and is seamlessly edited by a leading equine genomics researcher. Equine Genomics is an indispensible source of information for anyone with an interest in this increasingly important field of study, including equine genomic researchers, clinicians, animal science professionals and equine field veterinarians.
This volume describes how the conceptual and technical sophistication of contemporary cognitive and neuroscientific fields has enhanced the neurocognitive understanding of dreaming sleep. Because it is the only naturally-occurring state in which the active brain produces elaborate cognitive processes in the absence of sensory input, the study of dreaming offers a unique cognitive and neurophysiological view of the production of higher cognitive processes. The theory and research included is driven by the search for the most direct relationships linking the neurophysiological characteristics of sleepers to their concurrent cognitive experiences. The search is organized around three sets of theoretical models and the three classes of neurocognitive relationships upon which they are based. The contributions to this volume demonstrate that the field has begun to move in new directions opened up by the rapid advances in contemporary cognitive science, neuropsychology, and neurophysiology.
Physiology as such a vast subject with unlimited scope and which can be studied in different ways. There was a long left need, among students and teachers for a text book with recent information and written according to national syllabus. Efforts have been made to collect recent informations from several standard works and journals. Contents: Nutrition, Circulation, Respiration, Physiology of Aviation High Altitude, Space and Deep-sea Diving, Thermo- Regulation, Osmoregulation, Excretion, Muscles, Nervous System, Reproduction, Sense Organs, Chemical Messengers, Physiology of Endocrine Glands, Chronobiology.
5. 1. 1 Biological Rhythms and Clocks From an evolutionary perspective, the adaptation of an organism’s behavior to its environment has depended on one of life’s fundamental traits: biological rhythm generation. In virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans, biological clocks adapt cyclic physiology to geophysical time with time-keeping properties in the circadian (24 h), ultradian (24 h) domains (Edmunds, 1988; Lloyd, 1998; Lloyd et al. , 2001; Lloyd and Murray, 2006; Lloyd, 2007; Pittendrigh, 1993; Sweeney and Hastings, 1960) By definition, all rhythms exhibit regular periodicities since they constitute a mechanism of timing. Timing exerted by oscillatory mechanisms are found throughout the biological world and their periods span a wide range from milliseconds, as in the action potential of n- rons and the myocytes, to the slow evolutionary changes that require thousands of generations. In this context, to understand the synchronization of a population of coupled oscillators is an important problem for the dynamics of physiology in living systems (Aon et al. , 2007a, b; Kuramoto, 1984; Strogatz, 2003; Winfree, 1967). Circadian rhythms, the most intensively studied, are devoted to measuring daily 24 h cycles. A variety of physiological processes in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms display circadian rhythmicity which is characterized by the following major properties (Anderson et al. , 1985; Edmunds, 1988): (i) stable, autonomous (self-sustaining) oscillations having a free-running period under constant envir- mental conditions of ca.