Radar systems

Ultrawideband Radar Measurements

Author: L. Astanin

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Radar systems

Page: 238

View: 414

This book presents some novel approaches to radar system analysis now being investigated. It is shown how systematic application of numerical procedures can provide new results in the evaluation of UWB radar target responses. The authors do not try to cover all of the possible solutions to the problem of multidimensional representation of target responses, rather they aim to give a general understanding of the techniques of confluent analysis, computer holography and adaptive synthesis of antenna apertures. The methods have great potential for solving conventional radar problems in target detection and recognition.
Technology & Engineering

Ultrawideband Radar

Author: James D. Taylor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 961

Providing a practical review of the latest technology in the field, Ultrawideband Radar Applications and Design presents cutting-edge advances in theory, design, and practical applications of ultrawideband (UWB) radar. This book features contributions from an international team of experts to help readers learn about a wide range of UWB topics, including: History of the technology American and European governmental regulations and key definitions Nonsinusoidal wave propagation theory Random signal radar Object detection by ground permittivity measurements Large-target backscattering effects Medical applications Large current radiator antenna design Materials-penetrating theory Radar signal processing Weak-signal detection methods Holographic and real time radar imaging This book’s contributors use practical information to illustrate the latest theoretical developments and demonstrate UWB radar principles through case studies. Radar system engineers will find ideas for precision electronic sensing systems for use in medical, security, industrial, construction, and geophysical applications, as well as those used in archeological, forensic and transportation operations.
Automatic tracking

Ultrawideband Radar Measurements

Author: L. Y. Astanin

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Automatic tracking

Page:

View: 357

This book presents a detailed discussion of mathematical models for radar targets and the statistical processing of scattered signals. The efficiency of the regularising algorithms suggested is illustrated with a description of experimental data processing. Further progress in UWB radar systems is closely associated with the design of fast response (picosecond-range) devices, efficient antennas and analogue-to-digital converters for a frequency of 10 GHz. These devices can considerably improve UWB radar performance
Technology & Engineering

Ultrawideband Radar Measurements

Author: L. Y. Astanin

Publisher: IET

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 244

View: 819

With growing interest in the applications of ultrawideband radar systems (UWB), this timely book provides an essential contribution to the field of radar system analysis. While concentrating on principal issues of theory, computer processing, modeling and measuring UWB signals, the scope of the issues covered in the book is wider than in previous publications. Written with the research engineer in mind, the book presents detailed discussion of mathematical models for radar target detection and recognition, as well as estimation of target detectability, and considers UWB applications in new fields such as subsurface probing and ecological monitoring.
Technology & Engineering

Advanced Ultrawideband Radar

Author: James D. Taylor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 476

View: 348

This book presents the latest theory, developments, and applications related to high resolution materials-penetrating sensor systems. An international team of expert researchers explains the problems and solutions for developing new techniques and applications. Subject areas include ultrawideband (UWB) signals propagation and scattering, materials-penetrating radar techniques for small object detection and imaging, biolocation using holographic techniques, tomography, medical applications, nondestructive testing methods, electronic warfare principles, through-the-wall radar propagation effects, and target identification through measuring the target return signal spectrum changes.
Technology & Engineering

Time-Domain Ultra-Wideband Radar, Sensor and Components

Author: Cam Nguyen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 133

View: 317

This book presents the theory, analysis, and design of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar and sensor systems (in short, UWB systems) and their components. UWB systems find numerous applications in the military, security, civilian, commercial and medicine fields. This book addresses five main topics of UWB systems: System Analysis, Transmitter Design, Receiver Design, Antenna Design and System Integration and Test. The developments of a practical UWB system and its components using microwave integrated circuits, as well as various measurements, are included in detail to demonstrate the theory, analysis and design technique. Essentially, this book will enable the reader to design their own UWB systems and components. In the System Analysis chapter, the UWB principle of operation as well as the power budget analysis and range resolution analysis are presented. In the UWB Transmitter Design chapter, the design, fabrication and measurement of impulse and monocycle pulse generators are covered. The UWB Receiver Design chapter addresses the design and measurement of the strobe pulse generator, sampling mixer, low-noise amplifier and synchronous sampling receiver. Next, the UWB Antenna Design chapter details the design and measurement of to two UWB antennas: the microstrip quasi-horn antenna and the UWB uniplanar antenna. The System Integration and Test chapter covers the transmission-reception test, signal processing, system integration, and evaluation of the UWB sensor. The final chapter provides a summary and conclusion of the work.
Ultra-wideband radar

Ultrawideband Radar Clutter Measurements of Forested Terrain, 1991--1992

Author: D.M. Sheen

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Ultra-wideband radar

Page:

View: 389

The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.
Radar

Ultra Wideband Radar Antenna Design for Snow Measurement Applications

Author: John Samy Mosy

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Radar

Page: 410

View: 120

Creating a high-precision, compact and low cost snow structure and depth sensor has always been the dream of many industries, and yet hard to achieve all together. Snow depth sensors are used in avalanche search and rescue and widely in recreational snow industry, as well as in environmental monitoring systems for snow water equivalence measurements. The use of radar for snow depth measurement is not new and many techniques -such as Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) - have been used but they prove to be costly, bulky, and have relatively low precision. Today with the availability of chip-scale Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) technology, it is possible to create Snow Depth Sensor (SDS) and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) measuring systems in low cost, small size and possibly mobile devices, with very high precision. One problem that remains at the RF (Radio Frequency) end of the UWB technique in measuring snow parameters is the antenna used in transmitting and receiving UWB pulses. UWB pulses are characterized by an instantaneous fractional energy bandwidth greater than about 0.20-0.25. The FCC has allocated spectrum for UWB use in the 3.1-10.6 GHz band and available chipsets generate pulses in the lower 3-6 GHz band. For creating applications that use UWB in measuring snow parameters such as SWE and snow depth, a UWB antenna is required. A successful UWB radar antenna needs to have high gain, linear phase, low dispersion and low Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), and high directivity throughout the entire band. The antennas are to have physically compact design with high gain, linear phase, low VSWR and high directivity for UWB radar applications in the snow measurements industry. This thesis presents several antenna designs for the 3.1-10.6 GHz UWB band and the 3-6 GHz UWB lower band that have the potential to meet these requirements, and show, through laboratory measurements, modeling and simulations, that the required attributes can be achieved.
Technology & Engineering

Introduction to Ultra-Wideband Radar Systems

Author: James D. Taylor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 688

View: 484

This introductory reference covers the technology and concepts of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems. It provides up-to-date information for those who design, evaluate, analyze, or use UWB technology for any application. Since UWB technology is a developing field, the authors have stressed theory and hardware and have presented basic principles and concepts to help guide the design of UWB systems. Introduction to Ultra-Wideband Radar Systems is a comprehensive guide to the general features of UWB technology as well as a source for more detailed information.
Backscattering

Ultra-wideband Radar Measurements Over Bare, Snow-covered and Pancake Ice

Author: P. Kanagaratnam

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Backscattering

Page: 43

View: 674

An ultra-wideband radar and a plane wave antenna have been used to measure the high resolution scattering response of bare saline ice, snow covered ice and pancake ice during the winter seasons of 1994 and 1995 at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). The objectives of these experiments were to study various mechanisms for simulating roughness and to understand scattering mechanisms better. These backscatter measurements were made at 2-18 GHz and 0.5-16.5 GHz during the 1994 and 1995 experiments respectively, and were made for incidence angles ranging from 0 to 55 deg. These broadband measurements provide a vigorous test for models at many frequencies using a single system instead of many single frequency systems.
Snow surveys

Continuous Snow Water Equivalent Measurements with Ultra-wideband Radar

Author: Mark Edward Robertson

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Snow surveys

Page: 87

View: 852

"Snow accounts for the majority of precipitation in many areas of the Western United States, and accurate measurements of the amount of water contained in the snowpack, known as snow water equivalent (SWE), are therefore important for water resource managers. The National Resources Conservation Service Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites are the current standard remote measurement of SWE, with approximately 800 sites across the Western United States. Measurements at these sites are made by snow pillows, which weigh the overburden pressure of a snowpack, and are relatively expensive to install and maintain. Spring runoff is modeled using a 30-year average of SNOTEL SWE values, and recent years are increasingly diverging from the historical record as climate change impacts both the timing and amount of runoff. Additional measurements of in-situ SWE would increase model performance, but the current technology is several decades old and has limited range for site expansion. Radar has been proven to effectively measure SWE since the 1970s, but has not been developed as an operational sensor because the technology has been expensive and the data processing has not been developed for real-time applications necessary for remote sites. This study applies a novel automatic processing algorithm, which inputs raw radar data and outputs SWE values available for transmission, to newly available hardware. The combination of automatic processing and new, high-resolution hardware allows radar to continuously measure SWE at remote sites, which have the potential to make radar the next generation of SWE sensor technology. The accuracy of the radar was first determined by a series of focused, 1-2m radar profiles over subsequently excavated manual snow pits, with accuracy of 7% in SWE compared to manual measurements. A network of eight radars was deployed at remote sites in Idaho, Montana and Colorado. Three of the eight remotely deployed radars were located at sites with independent SWE or precipitation measurements: Bogus Basin SNOTEL, Banner Summit SNOTEL and Garden Mountain weather station. Automatically processed radar SWE values are compared to the traditional snow pillow SWE values at the Bogus Basin and Banner Summit SNOTEL sites, and to a precipitation gauge at the Garden Mountain weather station. Radar-derived SWE values were highly correlated with SNOTEL SWE values, as well as with the precipitation gauge values of water equivalent. The combination of new hardware and an automatic processing algorithm has proven that radar can be an effective sensor for remotely measuring SWE in a range of alpine snowpacks."--Boise State University ScholarWorks.

In-situ, High-resolution Radar Imaging of Dynamic Targets Using an Ultra-wideband Radar

Author: Chenchen Jimmy Li

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 268

View: 863

This dissertation investigates in-situ, high-resolution radar imaging of dynamic targets using an ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. Three challenging classes of dynamic targets are investigated: wind turbines, vehicles, and small consumer drones. First, the measurement and processing methodologies are developed to capture the inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image of an operating horizontal-axis wind turbine. Measurement data of a small three-blade wind turbine are collected using a UWB radar, and the measured signatures are compared to simulation results based on physical optics. The backscattering phenomenology is examined in the sinogram, spectrogram, and ISAR image domains. The same methodologies are then applied to generate the in-situ ISAR imagery of an 18-blade windmill and a 1.7 MW utility-class wind turbine. Next, the radar signatures of a vertical-axis wind turbine are studied. Measurement and simulation are carried out for a 1.5 m tall Darrieus-type turbine model. Interpretation of the dominant backscattering mechanisms is carried out. Subsequently, the radar signatures of a 112 m tall turbine are examined using simulation. Second, wide-angle ISAR imaging of vehicles is investigated. Measurement data of moving vehicles are collected using a stationary roadside UWB radar. The generated baseline ISAR images show a clear distinction between different-sized vehicles. The images are further focused through motion compensation using a p-norm minimization. The resulting images are well focused and correspond closely to the physical dimensions of the vehicles. Third, the ISAR imaging of small consumer drones is considered. Laboratory measurement is conducted first, where the drones are rotated on a turntable and the backscatterered data are collected over a wide frequency band to form high-resolution images. The effects of frequency band, aspect, polarization, dynamic blade rotation, camera mount, and drone types are examined. Subsequently, ISAR imaging of in-flight drones, from data collected using a stationary UWB radar on the ground, is demonstrated. Finally, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging using a small drone as the radar platform is explored. The entire system including a UWB radar, antennas, a camera, and a single-board computer fits on the small drone and is controlled through a Wi-Fi connection. Both the side-looking and downward-looking SAR scenarios are presented.
Technology & Engineering

Ultra-wideband Radar Technology

Author: James D. Taylor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 598

In 1995, James D. Taylor's Introduction to Ultra-Wideband Radar Systems introduced engineers to the theory behind a promising new concept for remote sensing. Since then, the field has undergone enormous growth with new applications realized and more applications conceptualized at a remarkable pace. However, understanding ultra-wideband (UWB) radar requires a new philosophical approach. Concepts such as radar cross section will have new meanings as range resolution becomes smaller than the target. Ultra-Wideband Radar Technology is a guide to the future of radar by an international team of experts. They present the problems, solutions, and examples of UWB radar remote sensing. Chapters discuss the theory and ideas for future systems development, and show the potential capabilities. The writers present concepts such as the differences between UWB and conventional radars, improving over-resolved target detection, receivers and waveforms, micropower systems, high power switching, and bistatic radar polarimetry. Finding comparable information elsewhere might require consulting hundreds of other books, technical journals, and symposium proceedings. Ultra-Wideband Radar Technology offers a unique opportunity to explore the theory, applications, and technology of UWB radar within a single source.
Engineering

Ultrawideband Radar

Author: James Taylor

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Engineering

Page: 536

View: 1000

Providing a practical review of the latest technology in the field, Ultrawideband Radar Applications and Design presents cutting-edge advances in theory, design, and practical applications of ultrawideband (UWB) radar. This book features contributions from an international team of experts to help readers learn about a wide range of UWB topics, including: History of the technology American and European governmental regulations and key definitions Nonsinusoidal wave propagation theory Random signal radar Object detection by ground permittivity measurements Large-target backscattering effects Medical applications Large current radiator antenna design Materials-penetrating theory Radar signal processing Weak-signal detection methods Holographic and real time radar imaging This book's contributors use practical information to illustrate the latest theoretical developments and demonstrate UWB radar principles through case studies. Radar system engineers will find ideas for precision electronic sensing systems for use in medical, security, industrial, construction, and geophysical applications, as well as those used in archeological, forensic and transportation operations.
Technology & Engineering

Radar Technology

Author: Guy Kouemou

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 430

View: 742

In this book “Radar Technology”, the chapters are divided into four main topic areas: Topic area 1: “Radar Systems” consists of chapters which treat whole radar systems, environment and target functional chain. Topic area 2: “Radar Applications” shows various applications of radar systems, including meteorological radars, ground penetrating radars and glaciology. Topic area 3: “Radar Functional Chain and Signal Processing” describes several aspects of the radar signal processing. From parameter extraction, target detection over tracking and classification technologies. Topic area 4: “Radar Subsystems and Components” consists of design technology of radar subsystem components like antenna design or waveform design.
Computers

Introduction to Ultra-Wideband Radar Systems

Author: James D. Taylor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Computers

Page: 672

View: 939

This introductory reference covers the technology and concepts of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems. It provides up-to-date information for those who design, evaluate, analyze, or use UWB technology for any application. Since UWB technology is a developing field, the authors have stressed theory and hardware and have presented basic principles and concepts to help guide the design of UWB systems. Introduction to Ultra-Wideband Radar Systems is a comprehensive guide to the general features of UWB technology as well as a source for more detailed information.