An estimated 50 million people perished in World War II. Millions across the globe fled war zones to be replaced by soldiers of all creeds and backgrounds. The war changed the world. As technology raced ahead, this was matched by political change, the final end of old empires and the growth of new superpowers.
Crafting Communities explores the interface between craft, communication networks, and urbanization in Viking-age Northern Europe. Viking-period towns were the hubs of cross-cultural communication of their age, and innovations in specialized crafts provide archaeologists with some of the best evidence for studying this communication. The integrated results presented in these papers have been made possible through the sustained collaboration of a group of experts with complementary insights into individual crafts. Results emerge from recent scholarly advances in the study of artifacts and production: first, the application of new analytical techniques in artifact studies (e.g. metallographic, isotopic, and biomolecular techniques) and second, the shifted in interpretative focus of medieval artifact studies from a concern with object function to considerations of processes of production, and of the social agency of technology. Furthermore, the introduction of social network theory and actor-network theory has redirected attention toward the process of communication, and highlighted the significance of material culture in the learning and transmission of cultural knowledge, including technology. The volume brings together leading UK and Scandinavian archaeological specialists to explore crafted products and workshop-assemblages from these towns, in order to clarify how such long-range communication worked in pre-modern Northern Europe. Contributors assess the implications for our understanding of early towns and the long-term societal change catalysed by them, including the initial steps towards commercial economies. Results are analyzed in relation to social network theory, social and economic history, and models of communication, setting an agenda for further research. Crafting Communities provides a landmark statement on our knowledge of Viking-Age craft and communication
In Viking Warriors, the Norse invaders, as infamous for their brutality as their exploration, come to life. Students will read about raids, battles, and key fighters and leaders. Illustrations, engravings, and relics depict the Norse culture, marine and combat technology, and fighting styles that gave them the advantage in battle. Maps and diagrams demonstrate their ambitious expansion and conquest of cities and people throughout the Northern hemisphere. With their far-reaching longships and fierce tactics, the influence and violence of the Vikings spread from America to the Middle East, leaving behind traces of an iconic culture and combative strategy.
An epic historical biography of the Norwegian king who laid claim to the thrones of Denmark and England. Harald Hardrada is perhaps best known as the inheritor of “seven feet of English soil” in that year of fateful change, 1066. But Stamford Bridge was the terminal point of a warring career that spanned decades and continents. Thus, prior to forcibly occupying the Norwegian throne, Harald had an interesting (and lucrative) career in the Varangian Guard, and he remains unquestionably the most notable of all the Varangians who served the Byzantine emperors. In the latter employment he saw active service in the Aegean, Sicily, Italy, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, and Bulgaria, while in Constantinople he was the hired muscle behind a palace revolution. A man of war, his reign in Norway was to be taken up with a wasteful, vicious, and ultimately futile conflict against Denmark, a kingdom (like England) he believed was his to rule. We follow Harald’s life from Stiklestad, where aged fifteen he fought alongside his half-brother, King Olaf, through his years as a mercenary in Russia and Byzantium, then back to Norway, ending with his death in battle in England. Praise for God’s Viking “A gripping story of the last great Viking who is remembered most for his boast to the Saxons that he had come to conquer their land and ended up with just enough to contain his body . . . . Most highly recommended.” —Firetrench
A critical survey of the vocabulary of Viking ships and their crews, of fleets and sailing and battles at sea, based on the runic and skaldic evidence from c.950-1100, and studied within the context of Viking activity in the period.
On a day in August, 1,000 years ago, a fleet of some 90 viking ships sailed into the estuary of the Blackwater river in Essex. Fresh from the ravage of Ipswich, under the command (almost certainly) of the king of Denmark, they were intent no doubt on the rich spoils to be had from the royal Mint at Maldon. Facing them on the shore was Byrhtnoth, the second nobleman of the realm, with an army drawn from the households of the region. The ensuing fight was terrible in its ferocity. Byrhtnoth and many of his companions were slain, and eventually the vikings triumphed. Their victory marked the collapse of effective armed resistance to the Danes, and presaged the end of Anglo-Saxon England.
Essays on British and Irish novelists discusses the combination of desperation and avant-gardism, bestsellers, masterpieces, competing technologies, hyper fiction, the future of the novel, recent changes in British publishing, and the increase in writings by celebrity authors.
In the spring of 878 at the Battle of Edington the tide of English history turned. Alfred's decisive defeat of Guthrum the Dane freed much of the south and west of England from Danish control and brought a halt to Guthrum's assault on Alfred's Wessex. The battle was the continuation of a long period of preparation by Alfred in the wilderness - a victory snatched from the jaws of catastrophic defeat. As such, this momentous turning point around which an entire nation's future pivoted, has given rise to legends and misconceptions that persist to the present day. Paul Hill, in this stimulating and meticulously researched study, brings together the evidence of the medieval chronicles and the latest historical and archaeological research to follow the struggle as it swung across southern England in the ninth century. 40 b/w photos
A biographical-bibliographical guide to the writers who have received the Nobel Prize in Literature. Provides entries for each Nobel Prize laureate. Entries also include the Nobel Prize in Literature presentation speech for the corresponding year and the banquet speech given by the Nobel Prize laureate.
Embraces the work of writers working in theatrical traditions ranging from the classic well-made play to the most radical avant-garde pieces. This variety is indicative of the fact that this period is one of the most important in British drama, comparable to the late-Elizabethan/Jacobean and post-Restoration eras in terms of the quantity and quality of new work and surpassing both of them in the sheer variety of theatrical offerings.