The Global COE is setting out a zero-emission technology roadmap and is promoting socioeconomic studies of energy, studies of new technologies for renewable energies, and research for advanced nuclear energy. It has also established the Global COE Unit for Energy Science Education to support young researchers as they apply their skills and knowledge and a broad international perspective to respond to issues of energy and the environment in our societies. This book follows on the earlier volumes Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2009, 2010, and 2011.
Since 2008, the Global Center of Excellence (COE) at Kyoto University, Japan, has been engaged in a program called “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming—Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System.” Its aim is to establish an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies for establishing a CO2 zero-emission society no longer dependent on fossil fuels. It is well known that the energy problem cannot simply be labeled a technological one, as it is also deeply involved with social and economic issues. The establishment of a “low-carbon energy science” as an interdisciplinary field integrating social sciences with natural sciences is necessary. The Global COE is setting out a zero-emission technology roadmap and is promoting socioeconomic studies of energy, studies of new technologies for renewable energies, and research for advanced nuclear energy. It has also established the Global COE Unit for Energy Science Education to support young researchers as they apply their skills and knowledge and a broad international perspective to respond to issues of energy and the environment in our societies. Comprising the proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Global COE Program, this book follows on the earlier volumes Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2009 and 2010, published in March 2010 and February 2011, respectively.
This year's Human Development Report explains why we have less than a decade to change course and start living within our global carbon budget, and how climate change will create long-run low human development traps, pushing vulnerable people into a downward spiral of deprivation.
Human activities, primarily those related to energy production and use, are increasing the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' in the atmosphere. These heat-trapping gases are believed to contribute to global warming, which could lead to future climatic changes. To address the potential consequences of climate change, the United States and other countries have entered into international negotiations and agreements. In October 1997, the administration proposed stabilizing U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases at 1990 levels by no later than 2012. The most recent agreement, known as the Kyoto Protocol, was negotiated in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and calls for even greater reductions in U.S. greenhouse gases. Of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, carbon dioxide is of significant concern for the United States, constituting more than 80 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 1996. Prior to the Kyoto conference, a September 1997 Dept. of Energy (DoE) study by five DOE national laboratories quantified the potential for energy-efficient and low-carbon technologies to reduce U.S. carbon emissions to 1990 levels by 2010. Among other things, the study (also known as the five-lab study) concluded that an aggressive national commitment to energy-efficient and low-carbon technologies--coupled with an increase in the price of carbon-based fuels of $50 per metric ton--could reduce carbon emissions to the levels they were in 1990, with energy savings estimated to roughly equal or exceed costs. In view of the study's potential influence on U.S. climate change policy, as requested, we are providing you with information on (1) how the study's scope and methodology may limit its usefulness, (2) key assumptions that may have influenced the study's results, (3) the study's role in the formulation of the Oct. '97 climate change proposal and the Kyoto Conference's emission-reduction goals for the U.S.
In its latest Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) projects that without further action the global average surface t- perature would rise by a further 1. 8–4. 0°C until the end of this century. But even if the rise in temperature could be limited to the lower end of this range, irreversible and possibly catastrophic changes are likely to occur. Consequently, the protection of the earth’s atmosphere requires substantial efforts to reduce CO and other green- 2 house gas emissions – especially in countries with very high per capita emissions. To limit the imminent rise in temperature, in the Kyoto-Protocol, the European Union has committed itself to reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases by 8% up to 2008–2012 compared to 1990 levels. Within the EU burden sharing agr- ment, some countries have to achieve even higher emissions reductions. Germany was assigned a reduction target of 21%. The entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol in February 2005 marks a first step towards meting global climate targets, but more ambitious action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is needed after 2012, when the Kyoto targets expire. Under German presidency, the EU has committed itself to unilaterally reduce its greenhouse gas emissions until 2020 by 20%. In case a Post- Kyoto agreement can be reached, the EU reduction target would be 30% (CEU, 2007).
Russia's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol brought the pact into force and established an international market in greenhouse gases. As other participants seek to meet their Kyoto commitments to reduce harmful emissions, Russian climate politics is dominated by the supply of surplus emission allowances and credits that could provide other countries with cheaper compliance. Russia and the Kyoto Protocol assesses the prospects for international emissions trading and joint implementation with Russia in the light of economic, political, and institutional factors. The book provides an understanding of the interplay with developments in the energy sector and Russia's economic ambitions and capacity to comply with Kyoto requirements. Potential future political and administrative developments are also considered. This detailed insight into the dynamics of Russian Kyoto politics and implementation will be of value to policymakers, businesses, and analysts engaging with Russia through the Kyoto mechanisms, and those interested in developments in the international climate regime.
This book reviews how far East Asian nations have implemented green fiscal reform, and show how they can advance carbon-energy tax reform to realize low carbon development, with special reference to European policy and experience. East Asian nations are learning European experiences to adopt them in their political, economic and institutional contexts. However, implementation has been slow in practice, partly due to low acceptability that comes from the same concerns as in Europe, and partly due to weak institutional arrangements for the reform. The slow progress in the revenue side turns our eyes to the expenditure side: how East Asian nations have increased environmental-related expenditures, and how far they have greened sectorial expenditures. This "lifecycle" assessment of fiscal reform, coupled with the assessment of the institutional arrangement constitutes the features of this book. The book helps to provide an overall picture of green fiscal reform and carbon-energy tax reform in the East Asian region. The region has a variety of countries, from lowest income to high income nations. Nations have different interests in substance and barriers for reform. This book covers recent development of environmental fiscal reform and carbon-energy taxation in wider nations in the region, including South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and Japan. In addition, the book's holistic view helps to understand why a specific nation has interest and concern on some aspects of the reforms.
This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China’s energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China’s energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China’s carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China’s soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China’s industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world’s largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country’s twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China’s energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China’s carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.
Written by Nicholas Moussis, a former European Commission adviser and author of several well-known reference works on European issues, EU Environment and Energy Policies provides a comprehensive overview of two sectors destined to dominate political discussions over the next few years. Divided into four chapters, each completed by an annex containing full versions of the key legislative texts mentioned therein, the 660-page work offers an excellent reference instrument for anyone trying to follow developments in these fast-evolving areas of EU policy
Environmental degradation by Purusottam Bhattacharya
Governments and civil society in Latin America and the Caribbean should be well informed about the potential costs and benefits of combating climate change, their policy options over the next decades, and the global context for these policy decisions. At the same time, the global community needs to be better informed about the unique perspective of the Latin American and Caribbean region: problems the region will face, its potential contributions toward combating global warming, and how to maximize this potential while continuing to maintain growth and reduce poverty. This book, a companion vo.
Publisher: Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
This report contributes to the debate on climate change and policy development to promote sustainable energy use, by giving an assessment of possible greenhouse gas emission reduction pathways made feasible by global action and a transition to a low-carbon energy system in Europe by 2030. It analyses trends and projections for emissions of greenhouse gases and the development of underlying trends in the energy sector; and also discusses policy options to facilitate a cost-effective transition to a low-carbon energy system.
"Presents three scenarios of what the future may hold: expected, severe, and catastrophic and analyzes the security implications of each. Considers what can be learned from early civilizations confronted with natural disaster and asks what the largest emitters of greenhouse gases can do to reduce and manage future risks"--Provided by publisher.